How to reference a book using Harvard style (6:38)

Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video.

Today we are going to talk about how to write a reference for a book using Harvard referencing style.

Now, the majority of ebooks are available in print form, so in most cases, you’ll be referencing books and ebooks in the same way. But if an ebook is not available in print form, then we have a slightly different way of referencing it, and this will be covered later in the video.

So, here are the elements that you’ll need to reference a book correctly. You can usually find this information on the front or back cover, or somewhere on the first couple of pages of the book, or in the library catalogue.

So here’s an example of a library catalogue - let’s see where the referencing information is usually found.

Author name(s)
Year of publication
Title of the book
Any edition number
Publishing company
Place of publication.

The place of publication is the location of the publisher. If more than one place is listed, just use the first one, or the one that’s highlighted in bold type (if there is one).

So, here we have the basic format for referencing a book in Harvard style. This is how we’ll arrange the referencing information that we’ve just drawn from our catalogue.

First we have the authors, keeping the authors in the same order as they appear in the book. We start with the author’s last name and their initial.

Notice that there’s a comma between all the author’s names and their initials. There is also a comma to separate the first two authors, but we place an ampersand before the last author’s name, like this.

Notice that in Harvard style, we don’t use full stops to punctuate the authors’ initials.

Now, after the last author’s initial, we have a space before the year of publication, and this is followed by a comma. Then comes the title of the book which is in italics and sentence case. Sentence case just means we capitalise the first word of the title and any proper nouns.

Next, we have the publisher name, followed by a comma, and the place of publication, followed by a full stop.

So let’s have a look at how our book fits with this format.

First, we have the authors’ last names and their initials. Our book has only two authors, we simply use an ampersand before the last author’s name, not a comma.

See that after the last author’s initial, we have a space before the year of publication. Then after the year of publication, there is a comma before the title of the book which is in italics and sentence case. When a title has two parts, as this title does, we also capitalise the first word of the second part of the title. Then the publisher name, a comma, and the place of publication.

Now, what if our book was an edited book or a book in another edition?

Again, we can find all the information on the first few pages of the book itself, or in the library catalogue – so let’s look at this example for the information we need:

Editor name(s)
Year of publication
Title of the book
Edition number, and this book appears to be in its first edition.
Publishing company
Place of publication.

And here’s an example of the format we use for referencing an edited book.

Notice that the elements follow the same pattern as our previous example, but instead of the author names, we have the names of the editors. Again, we have a comma separating the first two editors, and an ampersand, not a comma, separating the last two editors. Then, after the last initial, we have the abbreviation for the word “editors” which you can see is ‘eds’ – all in lowercase and punctuated with a full stop – and this information is contained within round brackets.

Then we have the year of publication. Note that there’s no comma between the editor information and the year of publication, there is only a space, before the book title, publisher and place of publication.

So let’s have a look at how our book fits with this format.

First, we have the editor’s last names and their initials. As our book has three editors, we have used commas to separate the first 2 editors, and an ampersand before the last editor’s name.

See that after the last editor’s initial, we have the editor information contained in round brackets, then a space before the year of publication, and then a comma.

Next, we have the title of the book which is in italics and sentence case. Notice that in sentence case, we use capitals for the first word of the title, as well as for names or proper nouns, so we have capitalised the name Wiley Blackwell as well.

The title is followed by a comma, and then we have the publisher name, a comma, and the place of publication, which in this case is Chichester, in West Sussex in the UK.

Now, let’s take a look at how to reference a book in an edition other than the first edition:

Here is the basic format for referencing a book in another edition.

Note that all the elements follow the same pattern as our earlier examples, only in this example, you can see we have placed the edition information right after the title of the book. Notice that this information is in abbreviated form – the letters “edn” stand for the word “edition”.

The edition information is followed by a comma before the publisher of the book. So let’s look at an example.

So here is an example. Again, the reference starts with the authors’ names followed by a comma, and then their initials. The authors’ are separated by an ampersand. And after the last author’s initials, we have a space before the date, 2020.

Next we have the title in italics and sentence case. The title of this book is a two part title, so again, we would capitalise the first word of the second part of the title like we did previously.

Now, this book is in its 5th edition, and we have included this information after the title in abbreviated form. Then after the edition information, we have a comma, before the publication name and location - and finally, a full stop.

Now sometimes a book has been revised since its earlier published version, but its not a new edition. This can happen when the author has made minor updates to the content or has corrected it in some way, but these changes aren’t substantial enough to warrant it being an entirely new edition.

Now as we mentioned at the beginning of this video, if an ebook is available in print form, then you can reference the ebook as a print book. The publishing details will be on the usual pages inside the ebook.

But if we’re referencing an ebook that is not available in print form, or it’s been re-formatted in text or HTML format so that it loses the original page format view, then we include a viewing date and a URL. Let’s break it down:

You will see here that we have all the same elements arranged in the same order as our previous examples. The first notable difference is the Publisher element – you can see we have the option of naming either the publisher or the sponsor. This is because some ebooks have a sponsor rather than a publisher – if this is the case we would simply insert the sponsor name and location (if there is one) instead of the publisher details. Then, after a comma, we add the word “viewed” followed by the full date on which we viewed the book. This is followed by a comma, and the URL, which you can see is in pointed brackets.

So let’s take a look at an example.
If this is the case, we include the abbreviation for “revised edition”, denoted by the letters rev –space- edn, followed by a comma, as we have shown here.

So here is our example of an edited ebook. After the editors’ names, we have the abbreviation of the word “editors” contained in round brackets. This is then followed by a space and the date, and then a comma before the title. Next, we have the Publisher name and the location of the publisher, as usual.

Then we have the word “viewed” followed by the full date, 27 August 2020 on which we viewed the book, and this is followed by the URL which is in pointed brackets.

Now, you can see all the books we’ve talked about today have been included in this example reference list. The reference list should always begin on a new page at the end of your document - with the heading References in bold and centred at the top of the page.

You can see that the references have been arranged in alphabetical order, based on the first author’s surnames. Remember to include all the works you cited in your assignment, in your reference list at the end of your paper.

So now you know how to reference books and ebooks in Harvard style. We hope this has been helpful. There is more information too – so don’t forget you can access SCU’s online reference guides through a link on the library’s homepage to explore further, and happy referencing!

We’ll see you next time!

How to reference quotations in-text using Harvard style (6:35)

Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video.

Today we are going to talk about how to cite in-text when using quotations using Harvard referencing style.

Now when we talk about direct quotations, what this means is we’re using the exact words of the author. In academic writing, we can use either short quotations (i.e., quotations that are less than 30 words) or we can use long quotations (i.e., quotations that are more than 30 words) : but there are rules for using both.

So these are the rules for using short quotations: Short quotes should be incorporated into a sentence. And, because we’re copying the exact words of the author, we need to put single quotation marks around the quote.

Finally, we need to include the source of the quote (this is our citation). So let’s have a closer look at the citation in Harvard style. The citation should include three pieces of important information:

The author’s name, The year, The page number.

So let’s take a look at how a short quote might look if we use an author-focused format.

The author-focused citation places an emphasis on the author by integrating the author name into the sentence, which is followed immediately by the year and the page number in brackets.

This type of citation is also called a narrative citation and is usually placed at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence. Notice the text at the top of the page.

This is the quote that we’re going to use in our hypothetical assignment. Now, because we’re quoting, we’re going to use these exact words, i.e., Students often find higher learning to be an exciting challenge. And this was written by Jones in 2020.

So, in the first example, we can see the author name is at the beginning of the sentence, which is followed immediately by the year, a comma, and then the page number inside the brackets). Then we have the reporting verb, “suggested that” and then the full quote in single quotation marks.

The second example is similar, but in this case, we start the sentence with our reporting verb, ‘According to’, and then the author name, Jones, and then in brackets immediately after the author’s name we have the year, comma, and the page number. A comma is placed immediately after the citation, and we have the full quote inside single quotation marks.

The third example uses a fragment or portion of the original quote. It has the author further back in the sentence. So, “Many students find academic study ‘an exciting challenge’ as Jones (2020, p. 7) suggested in a recent study.” Notice that in this example, the author name, followed by the date and page number in brackets, comes after the quote in the final part of the sentence.  

The last example demonstrates that we don’t need to use every word of a quote, we can simply use a fragment to highlight the part that we want to use. But we must always include the page number when using a direct quote.

Now let’s take a look at how a short quote might look in our assignment if we use an information-focused format. This kind of citation is usually placed at the end of a sentence. If we break this sentence down, we can see that the citation comes after the quotation: it begins with the author’s name followed by the date, then a comma before the page number.

Notice that there is no comma between the author name and the date, there is only a space. And note also, that the “p” denoting the page number is punctuated with a full stop.

This information is contained within round brackets, and a full stop is placed after the citation.

So now we know how to reference a short quotation using both author-focused and information-focused formats. But if we want to use a long quotation, a different format is used. By ‘long quotation’, we mean quotes with more than 30 words. 

Long quotes are far too long to include within the body of a text, and so they’re usually indented in a block format. Long quotations should be: Indented from the text margin in a block format. The font should be one size smaller, so if, for example you are using Times New Roman 12 pt in the body of your essay, you should use 11 pt for your long quotation. The line spacing is single-spaced and quotation marks are not needed.

Too many direct quotes is not good, so use direct quotations sparingly!

The majority of your assignment should be in your own “voice”. Try not to rely too heavily on the words of others because it can mean that you’re not demonstrating your own understanding of those ideas.

So we hope this has been helpful.

Good luck with all of your referencing and we’ll see you next time!