Harvard Style

Paraphrasing - How to cite in-text in Harvard style

Hello and welcome to the short video prepared by academic skills and today we are going to look at how to cite an in-text referenced paraphrased using Harvard referencing style.

Now there are two ways to reference a paraphrase in-text using Harvard, and these two ways are Author-focused and the second is information focused and we’re going to have a look at both of these.

Now when we want to reference in an author-focused way, the authors name or names if there is more than one author appear outside of the brackets. Okay, now when using this type of citation it usually happens at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence and we use this style if we want to draw attention to the author of the work we are referencing.

So let’s have a look at some examples of how this would look.

So, first of all, we have the original text written by Smith, there’s our author. And the original text states students often find referencing in the main text of their work a little difficult to understand and do correctly. So those are the author’s words and we want to use that idea by paraphrasing it into our own word and then referencing the author.

So here are three examples of how this might look using author focused style.

In number 1, Smith, in brackets, (2012) argued that in-text citations could be a little confusing. So I have author, year, reporting verb and then my paraphrase of the original idea.

In the second instance you can see that the author has moved a little further into the middle of the sentence.

According to Smith (2012), and then a comma after that, in text citation could be a little confusing.

So now I have the reporting verb, I have the author Smith, the year and then my paraphrase of the idea.

And finally in this last example, we can see that the author has moved into the middle of the sentence. In-text citations can be quiet confusing, as Smith (2012) pointed out in a recent study.

So here I have the paraphrase first, and then the author and the reporting verb.

Now, if I want to change the style and use information focused um referencing, the authors name is inside the brackets this time. Okay, now when we’re using this type of citation it most frequently appears in the middle or at the end of the sentence.  And unlike author focused referencing we use this to draw attention to the actual information itself.

So let’s have a look at how examples of this might look, again we have an original piece of text that we want to use and we have the author so the text states  - Students often find referencing in the main text of their work a little difficult to understand and do correctly.

Okay, so in the first example, you can see that the author appears right at the end of the sentence there. It has been argued that in-text citations could be a little bit confusing or a little confusing – so you can see the paraphrase is there – and then within the brackets we have the author (Smith 2012). It’s important to note at this stage that there is no comma the author and the year. This is an important feature of Harvard style referencing and something not to, ah, make a mess of, okay.

In the second example the reference is the middle of the sentence. I have my paraphrase first, In-text citations can be a little confusing (Smith 2012) both of them in the bracket no comma – and this poses a major challenge for students. So there I have added my own idea to the reference, so when we are looking at these ways of referencing remember that both author focused or information focused each is a suitable way to reference, one is not better than the other, they are both tools to use.

Importantly when we are thinking about paraphrasing we have to remember that want to keep the original meaning of the idea we are using, but we do have to put it into our own words and reference the author to avoid plagiarism. And the other thing we could use both of these methods to achieve is achieve variety. Um if we only use information focused referencing for example, our writing might start to look a bit repetitive. So if you can mix it up with some author focused and some information focused this add variety to your referencing, okay, so anyway that brings us to the end of this video, we hope it has been helpful to you and best of luck with all of your referencing.

Quotations - How to cite in-text in Harvard referencing style

Hello, and welcome to this short video, which today we are going to talk about how to cite in-text using quotations and we’re going to be looking at the Harvard referencing style. Now there are some rules for using direct quotes in Harvard. Firstly, we have to look at the length of the quote. Now if the quote we are going to use is less than 30 words this quote should be included in the main sentence in a text. However, if our quote is 30 words or longer it needs a different format and it should be presented in block format and indented and it should use one size smaller font. So for example, if I was using font 12 in the body of my assignment, I would have to reduce this quote to size 11. It should also use only single spacing.

So we’re going to have a look at how these quotes might appear within our assignment. Now, first of all, if we look at the two styles of referencing we can have the author-focused and information focused. Ah, we’re going to look at author-focused information first. Now when we are doing author -focused referencing, the authors name or names if there are multiple authors is outside of the brackets. Now you’ll usually find this type of citation at the beginning or perhaps in the middle of the sentence. And the reason we choose to use an author-focused is because we want to draw attention to that particular author by making them the head of the sentence. So, if we look at some examples of how a short quote, i.e. under 30 words would look in the author focused style, we can see these three clear examples. Now, at the top of the page there you have the original text, which in this case is written by Jones, and there it is word for word. As we’re quoting we are going to take that word-for-word - Students often find getting the reference list exactly correct quite difficult.

So, the first example, gives us an author first and then a reporting verb and then the entire quote in, notice this is single quotation marks. So, Jones then in brackets, 2017, now I’ll need a comma there and a p, a space then a p, full stop a space and then the page number because that’s what that denotes and we need to actually include the page number when quoting a direct quote. Okay, so Jones outside of the brackets, then my brackets including the year and the page number, then my reporting verb – argues that – and then the quote. And I finish it with a full stop outside of the last quotations mark.

My second option, is somewhat similar. However, I have put the reporting verb before the author in this case. So, According to Jones- and then again to the year and the page number in bracket, comma, then the quote within single quotation marks again.

My final option, is to put the author slightly further back in the sentence there - Many students experience great difficulty in getting the reference list exactly correct – so that’s the part of the quote that I have chosen to use there, and now the author comes after that – Jones then in brackets 2017 page 7 pointed out in a recent study. So my reporting verb comes after the author there

Now that last examples show us that we don’t need to necessarily take every word of a quote that we want to use. In the first two examples we’ve used every part of it, from students through to difficult. In this third example we’ve used our own sort of words to express the idea and then we’ve taken the words - getting the reference list exactly correct – as the exact words from the quote.

So just a few options about how an author focused example would work using short quotes.

Now, as we mentioned earlier, something different happens when we are dealing with longer quotes. And again with longer quotes we mean by over 30 words.  Now again we have an example with the original text and in this case the authors are McRudden and Ross.

Okay, so similar to the second example on the previous slide we’ve used the reporting verb first, - According to McRudden and Ross, now notice that as these two authors are outside of the brackets we’re using the actual word and A N D, and not the symbol. So according to McRudden and Ross – then in brackets – the year comma, space p dot, space - page number. So very similar to what we had before – state.  Now this is where something difference happens, um that quote would be far too long to include within a body of text its over 30.

So I have a colon, then I have a space. Then what I’ve done is I have indented the quote that I am using, which is what I require for direct quotes. In this case, however, we don’t use any quotation marks it has been indented in to a block, as you can see there. So, there are no quotation marks and then I put, this is what the original text said, and I put that straight down in a block quote, indented the quote that I am using starting with three dots and then that whole block of text is as you can see one font size smaller and the line spacing is single.

So just be mindful of the length of your quotes and if they are over 30 words, this is something that you are going to have to do.

Now, moving on to the second style of quotation that we might use, um instead of author-focused, were going to look at some examples of information-focused. Okay

Now in these types of citations the authors name or names appear inside the brackets with the year and the page number. Now you’d usually find this type of citation in the middle or end of the sentence and the reason we have this type citation too is that we want to draw attention to the actual information itself rather than the author. So, again the information appears at the head of the sentence and attracts our focus.

So again let’s have a look at some example of how this might look. So, first of all we’ll start off with the short quotations, the under 30 words.

So, again here have the same original text by Jones. So you can see something different has happened this time from our previous example

It has been argued that – and now I have the direct quote – ‘students often etc. etc. etc.’ and then Jones the year comma space page dot space seven closed brackets full stop.

Okay, so the main difference here is that not only does the author appear at the end, but this author is now included within the year and the page number within the reference, okay. So that makes us focus more on this information that students often find it. So that how it would look like with a short quote.

Um if we look at the same type of referencing in a long quote, again over 30 words, we would do something along the same lines. So instead of mention the author in this first part…It is widely known that, what we’ve done instead, instead of it saying McRudden and Ross show that etc... We don’t mention the authors at this points. So, it is widely known that, it can be argued that, it can be seen that. But again, when I’m ready for the quote, the colons appear, the actual quote become indented and starts with three dots. Again notice that the font is one size smaller than the font I am using in the body of my text, and again you can see that the authors have appeared within the brackets. So we have both authors the year and the page number.

Also interesting to note, if you think back to our previous example of the long quote, McRudden and Ross appeared outside of the brackets and we used the actual word and A N D. Please take special note that once more than one author appears within the brackets the symbol is used instead of the word and. This is an important referencing convention.

So, good luck with all of your referencing, we hope that’s been helpful with in terms of referencing direct quotes both long and short in the Harvard style. So, good luck with all of your referencing and we’ll see you next time.

How to write a reference for journal article: Harvard referencing style

Hello, and welcome to this short video on how to write a reference for a journal article in Harvard style.

Now, to write this type of reference, we’ll need to know a few pieces of information. We’ll need the author name or names, the year of publication, the title of the article and of the journal, the volume number, the issue number if there is one given, the page range and you MAY need a DOI, only if required by your lecturer.

OK, so let’s have a look at an example. What we’re looking at here is the first page of a journal article. Now, we don’t actually need to go down any further than the first page because all the information that I pointed out to you just a second ago we can find on this first page. So let’s go through and highlight those things that we need in the order that we need them.

First of all, we need the author names and here we can see three different author names. The first one has three initials, or three names before their family name which means they will have three initials, and then the two other authors.

The next thing we need after that is the year of publication, which is up there.

Then we’ll need the title of the article – ‘Which features make illustrations in multimedia learning interesting?’.

We need to know the title of the journal and this particular one is called ‘Educational Psychology’.

Then we need the volume number, the issue number, we need the page range as well, and that is all the information that we need.

Now, in this particular journal, you can see obviously that it is all located at the top of the page. Sometimes it’s not at the top, sometimes it’s at the bottom, sometimes it’s in the centre of the top, sometimes centre of the bottom. It IS on the first page regardless of what journal you’re looking at, so that’s something just to keep in mind.

Ok, so let’s have a look at how all that information can be put into a reference. So what I’ve done is I’ve just written all those different pieces of information in here so that we can see them on the same page, but what we’re really interested in is this one here, which is the actual reference.

Now for a Harvard reference you start your reference list on a new page, and then you have the centred title ‘References’.  

Then we have our three authors. You can see there are three family names here followed by their initials. Now, we already pointed out the first author has three initials, but the other two just have one. How many initials authors have is totally up to them – whatever they choose, you need to put that in the reference.

Next is the year of publication, followed by the title of the article and you’ll notice that it is inside single quotation marks. Then we’ve got the title of the journal in italics with capital letters for all main words. Then, volume and issue number and we have to use ‘vol. 36’ and ‘no. 9’, and then the page range which we need to use ‘pp.’ before that.

Now, just pay attention to all the bits and pieces that you see in a reference, and you’ll see in Harvard there are lots of commas all the way along. These are all important and are part of the referencing style so if you miss them, you’ve made a mistake. But just to make sure you get all those things right, you can always come back to this video or you can go to the Harvard referencing LibGuide to see some other examples there.

So, I hope that’s been helpful, and good luck with all of your study.

How to write a reference for a website: Harvard referencing style

Hello, and welcome to this short video prepared by Academic Skills, and today we’re going to look at how to write a reference for a website using Harvard referencing style.

Now, in order to write our reference, we’re going to need the following information in the following order. First of all, we’re going to need the author’s name – just be aware this may be the name of a person or an organisation. Secondly, we’re going to need the year of publication. After that, we’re going to need we’re going to need the title of the specific document if there is one. We’re also going to need the publisher if one appears, and then we’re going to need the date that we actually viewed the article online, which would be today’s date. And finally, we’re going to need to copy in the URL of the website that we are accessing it.

So, let’s have a look at a website that we want to use in our assignment. Now, first of all we’re going to need to find the name of the author. Now, in this case we can find it not far from the top and in this case it’s a person – Samantha Morris. Just be aware that sometimes this may the name of an organisation.

Next, we’re going to need the year of publication. If we can’t find it at the top, it’s always a good idea to look down towards the bottom of the website where there is a lot of information, and here if we look around we’ll find that it is in fact produced in 2017. So that is the year that we will use.

Next, we’re going to need the title of the specific document, which should appear at the top, and here we have it – ‘Gold Coast’s best camping spots’.

Next, we’re going to try and find the publisher if this is applicable. We can look around the top, but if we don’t find it there again it is probably best practice to look towards the bottom and see if there is a publisher listed there, and as you can see we have ‘Destination Gold Coast’ as the publishers.

The next piece of information we need is the date that we viewed the article, so we would write in today’s date for that particular piece of information.

And finally, in the top browsing bar we will copy the full URL of the website to copy into our referencing list.

So, now that we have that information we’ve just gathered it into this list so that we can see where it is and which order that we will use it. So, first of all we’ll need the author’s name – in this case it was Samantha Morris, so we will take the author’s surname and the initial, so that will be ‘Morris, S’.

Next comes the year of publication, ‘2017’. After a comma we will go on to the title of the web page, and notice that this is in italics. The other thing to notice is that only the first letter of the sentence and any proper nouns such as Gold Coast are in capitals here.

After a comma we have the name of the publisher, in this case ‘Destination Gold Coast’, and finally or next, nearly finally, we have the date of our access, and we write it in this format – always ‘viewed’, always the number of the day, the full name of the month, and the year – no punctuation.

After a comma, our last piece of information is the URL copied. Just notice that we have encased it in those brackets as well. And now our reference is ready to go, we have a full stop at the end of course.

Also remember all of our reference lists start on a new page and start with the bold, centred title ‘References’.

We hope this has been very useful, and good luck with all of your referencing.

How to write a reference for an online newspaper article using Harvard referencing style

Hello. Welcome to this short video prepared by Academic Skills, and today we’re going to look at how to write a reference for an online newspaper article using Harvard referencing style.

Now, in order to write our reference, we’re going to need the following pieces of information. Firstly, we’re going to need the name of the author or names of the authors if it is indeed multiple authors. We’re also going to need the year of publication. We’re going to need the title of the article itself, and we’re also going to need the name of the newspaper or news website that it comes from. We’ll also need the date of publication. We’ll also need the date that we actually looked at the article online, and finally we’ll need the URL of the website.

Now, let’s select an article that we’re going to use in our assignment, and this is how we’re going to reference this. As you can see this one happens to be taken from The Guardian online, the Australia edition.

Now, first of all, we need to find the author’s name, and the author’s name can be found down the side here – Katherine Murphy is the author here. Just be aware that it mentions Josh Frydenberg up here, but that is a politician that is being referred to in the title as you can see, so just be careful when selecting the author.

Now, the next piece of information we need is the year of publication, and there it is below the author’s name – 2017.

Next, we’re going to need the full title of the article and this is where it appears.

After that, we’re going to need the name of the newspaper or news site. As said previously, this is taken from The Guardian, so there is that title there, and next we need the actual date of publication, and here we have it – the 12th of July.

Now, we also have to add the information when we viewed this, so we would take a note of today’s date and include that in our reference, and finally we will copy the whole URL from the bar above so that will take us directly to that article when we need to access it.

So, in order to construct our reference we’ve put that information that we need in this list here so that we can then look at how we would put this together in a reference, ok?

Now, the first thing to note is that when we are writing our reference list, it needs to be on a new page with the centred heading ‘References’ in bold, ok?

Now, the information that we require is going to appear in the order that comes in the reference. So first of all, we need the author’s name and in this case it’s Katherine Murphy, so we lead with the surname of the author – Murphy – a comma, and then just a ‘K’, just the initial. If it was Katherine Jane Murphy, that would read ‘KJ’.

So, we have the name of the author. Next we have the year of publication – notice there is no punctuation between the initial and the year – then we have a comma and we have the title of the online article that we’re using in inverted commas, single inverted commas there, ok?

Next, after a comma we have the title of the newspaper and please note that this title, the title of the newspaper itself, is in italics.

Next, we have the date of publication, so this is the date that the newspaper article appeared, which was the 12th of July, and finally we also have the date that we accessed it, and we do this by writing ‘viewed’ and the date with the day, month and year. After that we have a comma and then we add the URL of the website enclosed in those brackets.

So, I hope that has been very helpful, and best of luck with all of your referencing.

How to write a reference for a chapter in an edited book in Harvard referencing style

Hello, and welcome to this video on how to write a reference for a chapter in an edited book in Harvard referencing style.

To do this you’ll need some important pieces of information. You’ll need to know the chapter author name or names, the year of publication, the title of the chapter, the name or names of the editor or editors of the book. You’ll then need the title of the whole book in which the chapter appears. Then you’ll need the publishing company, the place of publication, and the page range, and you’ll need all this information in this specific order.

Ok, so let’s have a look at an example of an actual edited book. So this is one that we have in PDF form, so just imagine that it’s an actual book that you’re using, and as you can see on the front cover it’s called ‘Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis’ and there are two names there as well. At the moment it’s hard to tell if this is an edited book or whether these two have written the whole book, but as we go through the next pages, we will be able to see that it is an edited book. So, here’s the front cover, but let’s go and have a look at the information that we actually need.

Now, I’m just scrolling through the first pages of this book now, and we’ll find all that information that we need on these pages. So, there we have the title again and we can see now that it is an edited book by these two editors. So more information there and then we get to the Table of Contents, and this is where we’re going to look first.

Now, from this particular book, the chapter that we’ve used is Chapter 6. So, the first bit of information we need is that author’s name, which is Norman Fairclough.

The next thing we need to know as we saw before is the year of publication, so I’m just going back here to the copyright page, and you’ll find that information on this page.

The next thing we need is the title of the chapter, so back to the Table of Contents and here is the title – ‘Critical discourse analysis as a method in social scientific research’.

After that we need to know the names of the editors, and here they are – Ruth Wodak and Michael Meyer.

We also need the title of the whole book, which we saw on the front cover and we can see again here – ‘Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis’.

Now, the next thing we need is the publishing company and we can usually see that on this page here – SAGE Publications – or the copyright page so we can see that here as well, and just ‘SAGE’ is enough to write for that.

We need the place of publication, and in this case we’ve got three different places that it’s been published, so we’re just going to take the first one which is ‘London’.

OK, and the last thing we need, if we come back once again to our Table of Contents, we need the page range. So that means the first page up to the last page of the chapter that we used. So, as you can see our chapter starts on page 121. The next chapter starts on page 139, and that means that the page range finishes on page 138, so 121 to 138.

And that’s all the information that we need, and as you can see we’ve found it all in the first few pages of this book.

Now, let’s see what this looks like in an actual reference. So what I’ve done here is I’ve listed the information that we just identified in the actual book so we can use it in our reference.

Now, when you start writing your reference list, just remember that you need to have a new page – here we don’t have a new page because it’s just an example but in your essay or your report you will start your reference list on a new page with a bold, centred heading ‘References’, like this. Then we start making our reference.

So, we start with the chapter author name, so we’ve got family name, comma, first initial, and then the year of publication, and then after another comma we have the title of the chapter in single quotation marks followed by a comma, and then ‘In R Wodak & M Meyer’ and in brackets ‘(eds.)’, so these are the editors and you’ll notice here that something interesting has happened with the way that their names are presented. So when we have a chapter in an edited book, the editors’ names have the initial first followed by their family name, so you can see for example that ‘R Wodak’ is in a different order to ‘Fairclough, N’, so that’s an important thing to keep in mind.

Then another comma, and then in italics with only the first word capitalised, we have the title of the book, comma, publishing company, London, and finally, after another comma, ‘pp.’, which indicates page range, and then we put that page range of 121-138 that we identified.

So, I hope that’s been very helpful for you and that now you are well equipped to reference a chapter in an edited book in Harvard referencing style. Best of luck.

How to write a reference for a book in Harvard referencing style

Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video prepared by Academic Skills on how to write a reference for a book using Harvard referencing style. Now, to do this we’ll need a few pieces of information, and we’ll need this information in this order.

First, we’ll need the author name or names if it’s multiple authors. Then we’ll need the year of publication, the title of the book, the edition number if there’s actually more than one edition, the publishing company, and then the place of publication.

OK, let’s have a look at an example of a book that we actually have in PDF form which is this one here – ‘An Introduction to Sociolinguistics’ – so let’s just imagine that this is an actual physical book we can hold in our hands because it’ll serve our purposes. So, we can see that on the front cover there are two authors, seventh edition, and we can also see the publisher’s name at the bottom. Now, all that information that I just pointed out that we need, we can find somewhere on the first few pages, and as I, I’m just sort of scrolling back and forth through what would be the first few actual paper pages of a physical book.

Now, of course on the cover we can see the authors and the title and so on look just like this, but I’m just going to highlight these in the order that we need them here. So, the first thing we need are the author names – we have two. After that, on a page that looks like this, which is the copyright page, we can find the year of publication. Now, in this case it’s right up the top – 2015 – it’s not always the very first line but it’s somewhere in the first part of a page like this, but this is the page that you need to come to find that year of publication. Title of the book, here it is. The next thing we need is the edition number if there is one mentioned and this one is the seventh edition so there it is. The next thing we need is the publishing company and that is, in this case, you can see it at the bottom of this page – Wiley Blackwell – for some reason I am not able to highlight this yellow, but ‘Wiley Blackwell’ at the bottom of this page is what we need for the publishing company, and then for the place of publication, come back to this copyright page and what we’re looking for, you can see there are some locations listed here under ‘Editorial Offices’, we don’t need to put all of those so we’ll just take the first one. Now all you need is the name of the town or city. In this case it is Malden, which is in Massachusetts in the USA.

OK, so let’s see how all this information will look in an actual reference. What I’ve done here is I’ve just listed the information that we have just found in the book, in the same order so we can see it as we put it into our reference.

Alright, now first of all, always remember that with a Harvard reference list you need to start with the bold, centred heading ‘References’ on a new page. I haven’t started a new page here because this is just an example, but in your essay or report or whatever assignment you’re doing, please start a new page even if it is just one reference.

Alright, then we have our author names – here they are. Now, we always start with our family name, comma, then initial, and we’ve done that here so the second author has two initials – JM. Now, no punctuation, then we have the year of publication, and then after a comma we have the title of the book. Now notice that the title of the book is in italics and only the first word is in capitals. That is what is required in Harvard style. The only words that would be capitalised would be any proper nouns such as names, places and things like that. Then we put our edition number after a comma like this, and after another comma, the publisher name, and then after a final comma we put the place of publication and we end the reference with a full stop.

So there you have it – that’s how you construct your reference for a book using Harvard referencing style. I hope this has been helpful for you and good luck with all of your studies.