How to reference a chapter in a book using Harvard style (4:25)
Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video.
Today we’ll look at how to write a reference for a chapter in an edited book using Harvard referencing style. An edited book usually comprises a number of chapters that are each written by a different author.
When you use information from a chapter in a collected work, the author or authors of the chapter must be credited.
So let’s take a look at how to do this. We can find all the information we need on the first few pages of the book itself, or in the library catalogue. So, here’s an example of an online library catalogue.
Let’s look at where the referencing information might be found: Now, it’s difficult to fit the whole catalogue entry on this screen, so we will need to scroll down to find some of the necessary elements.
For example, the first thing we need is the Chapter Author names, so we would scroll down to the Chapter information to find this:
Chapter author name(s)
Year of publication
Title of the chapter
Name(s) of editor(s)
Title of the whole book
So here is our Chapter information, and we’re interested in Chapter 3 in particular. So the first thing we need is the Chapter author names, which as you can see are:
Chapter author name(s) – Wendy D. Manning and Susan L. Brown
Year of publication
Title of the chapter - American Families: Demographic Trends and Social Class
Name(s) of editor(s)
Title of the whole book
Here is an example of the basic format for referencing an edited book [see video].
First we have the chapter author names. Notice that all the names are inverted, so that the last name comes first, followed by a comma and then the initial or initials for each chapter author. Note that there is an ampersand separating the second-last chapter author and the last author – there is no comma.
Then we have a space after the last author’s initial before the year of publication, which is followed by a comma. The title of the chapter comes next, which is in single quotation marks and in sentence case. This is also followed by a comma.
Then, we have the word “in” in lower case, followed by the editors’ names. Notice that these names are not inverted, so that their initials come first, before their last name – and there is no punctuation between the initials and the last name.
Then we have an abbreviated form of the word “editors” which is denoted by eds – and punctuated with a full stop and placed within round brackets. Then we have the title of the whole book, which is in italics and sentence case. This is followed by a comma before we have the Publisher name, a comma, and the publisher location, and another comma, before the page range of the chapter. Note that the page range is denoted by a pp – no punctuation – and then the page range, which ends with a full stop. And here it is. Again, we can see same general pattern as our previous example:
First we have the chapter author names, which are arranged with the last name first, followed by a comma, and then the initials, and in this case we have only two authors, which are separated by an ampersand. Then, after a space, we have the year of publication, followed by a comma.
Then the title of the chapter in single quotes, followed by a comma, then the word “in” and the editor names, in the normal order so that their initial or initials precede their last name. The editors’ names are followed by the abbreviated word for editors, which is punctuated and contained in round brackets, then a comma before the title of the whole book. Notice that in this title, we have capitalised the name Wiley Blackwell.
Next, we have the name of the publisher, the location of the publisher, and the page range of the chapter. So this brings us to the end of the video. Remember to include all the citations you’ve used in the text of your assignment in your reference list at the end of your document. This should also be on a new page, with the heading “References” in bold and centred.
The reference entries should be ordered alphabetically based on the first author’s name. So we hope this short video has been helpful. You can find more information about referencing through a link on the library’s homepage, or you can contact your SCU librarian, or one of the Learning Experience Team who would be happy to help you.
So…good luck with your referencing and we’ll see you next time!
How to reference a paraphrase using Harvard style (6:44)
Hello and welcome to this short video prepared by the Learning Experience Team.
In this video we’ll show you how to write an in-text citation for a paraphrase using Harvard referencing style.
So paraphrasing means expressing someone else’s ideas in your own words. When we paraphrase something, we express the original meaning of the idea that we’re using, but we use different words.
Now, when we paraphrase, it’s very important to acknowledge where we got the idea from by including a citation. This is why in-text citations are important: they allow your readers to link your main points to where the information was sourced.
So, let’s have a look at how this is done using Harvard referencing style.
There are basically two ways to reference a paraphrase in the body of your assignment:
an author-focused format or
an information-focused format.
Author-focused citations have the author’s name outside the brackets. These citations are integrated into the sentence, and are either at the beginning or in the middle of sentences. We use this format when we want to draw attention to the author.
So, here we have an example of some original text written by Smith, who is our author. And Smith states that “students often find referencing in the body of their work difficult to understand and do correctly.” So those are the author’s words. We will use that idea by paraphrasing it into our own words and then referencing the author.
Here are some examples of how this might look using an author focused style:
The sentence in the first example is “Smith argued that in-text citations can be confusing.”
So here we have the author first, then the year in brackets, then the reporting clause “argued that”, and then the paraphrase of the original idea.
In the next example, we can see that the author has been integrated further into the middle of the sentence: “According to Smith, in text citations can be confusing.”
In this sentence, we have the reporting verb (“According to”) first, then the author, “Smith”, then the year in brackets, followed by a comma, and then the paraphrased idea.
And finally in this last example, we can see that the author has moved toward the end of sentence: “In-text citations can be confusing, as Smith (2020) pointed out in a recent study.”
Here we have the paraphrase first, followed by a comma, and then the author, and the year, followed by the reporting clause.
Now, let’s take a look at information focused citations. In this format, the authors name is contained inside the brackets. This type of citation most frequently appears in the middle or at the end of the sentence. And unlike author focused referencing, we use this kind of referencing to draw attention to the actual information.
So, let’s look at some examples.
So, here again is the original text by our author Smith. You can see that In the first example, the citation appears right at the end of the sentence:
So we have our paraphrase first, “It has been argued that in-text citations can be confusing” and then at the end, we have the author and year contained in round brackets followed by a full stop.
It’s important to note that there is no comma between the author and the year, just a space.
This is an important feature of Harvard style referencing.
In the second example, the citation is in embedded in the middle of the sentence. So, the paraphrase comes first, “In-text citations can be a little confusing”, followed by
the citation (Smith 2020). Notice again that there is only a space between the author name and the date, there’s no comma.
This is then followed by an additional idea, “which poses a challenge for many students”.
So when thinking about which way to reference in your paper, author focused or information focused are both suitable styles to use, one is not better than the other. In fact, it’s a good idea to mix it up a little and use both styles in your paper.
Now let’s have a look at how to cite multiple authors in-text.
When a work has 2 or 3 authors, we cite all the names in the order in which they appear in the reference.
So, the first example shows how to reference a paraphrase with two authors using an author-focused style.
Remember, an author focused style integrates the authors into the sentence.
So this sentence starts with the author names, ‘Smith and Jones’, and the year in round brackets. Notice that the word ‘and’ is used between the author names instead of the symbol. Then the reporting verb, and then the paraphrase.
The second example shows how to cite in-text using an author-focused style when the work has 3 authors. Here we can see the first author’s name, followed by a comma, the second author’s name, then the word “and” and the last author’s name, and then the year in round brackets.
The third example shows how to cite in-text using an information-focused style, where you place the citation in brackets after the paraphrase.
So notice that we have the paraphrase first and then, at the end of the sentence, we have the first author’s name, followed by a comma, the second author’s last name
followed by an ampersand, then the last author’s name, and the year. Note that the full stop comes after the citation.
Notice again that there is no comma between the last author’s name and the year. If a work has 4 or more authors, we cite only the last name of the first author followed by ‘et al.’ ('et al.' is the Latin term for 'and others’).
So, our first example shows how more than three authors are cited when using an author-focused style (integrated into the text). You can see that the abbreviated word “al” is punctuated with a full stop, and there is only a space between the full stop and the date, there is no comma.
Now, the second example shows how more than 3 authors are cited using an information-focused style. Again, the word “al” is punctuated with a full stop, and then there is a space before the date.
So in a nutshell, when we paraphrase, we use our own words to explain someone else’s idea, and then we reference the idea to avoid plagiarism.
Remember, you can use information-focused or author-focused formats in your writing. Using both styles is a good idea because it will add variety to your referencing.
We hope this video has been helpful, and best of luck with all of your referencing!