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APA 7th Edition refefrencing styles

Transition to referencing with APA 7th style (10:30)

Hello and welcome to this short video prepared by the Learning Experience Team. Today, we’re going to look at some of the changes in the new 7th edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual.

In this video, we’ll be looking at a number of basic elements of APA Style. We’ll take a look at the guidelines for formatting student papers, including the new standards for heading styles and tables and figures. We’ll also learn about writing using bias-free, gender-neutral language. Then, we’ll take a look at the guidelines for in-text references and reference lists.

In APA 7th edition, there are some minor changes to the presentation requirements for student papers.

First, unless instructed otherwise by your lecturer, assignments no longer include a running head. This means that for student papers, your title page should only include the page number 1 in the top, right-hand corner of the page.

Also, the title of your assignment should be centred and bold, and placed three to four double-spaced lines down from the top of the page. Notice how the other elements of the title page are centred on the page.

In APA 7th edition, there are more fonts to choose from. The most important thing is that fonts should be easy to read for all users.

Make sure that whatever font you choose, you use that same font throughout your assignment.

Headings are important because they help you logically organise your thoughts and structure your paper. They also help readers find key points and track the development of your arguments” (APA, 2020).

As you can see from this table, all headings are now in bold and title case. Note that for heading levels 1-3, the text begins indented as a new paragraph. For heading levels 4 and 5, the text begins on the same line as the heading.

If you’re writing an essay, do not begin with an “Introduction” heading. Because the first paragraph of your paper is considered introductory, the heading is not needed.

Also, note that all section labels are now in bold, so that means your “Abstract” and “References” headings will now be in BOLD.

In APA 7, tables and figures are now formatted in the same way. Each table and figure should be given a title that is clear and explanatory, and aligned to the left margin (APA, 2020).

1. You will see from this figure that the heading “Figure” and the number “1” are BOLD. The applies to tables too.

2. You can see also that the title is in title case and italics, just like tables.

3. Figures also now have notes (instead of a caption) =- THIS ALSO IS formatted in the same way as Tables.

APA seventh edition has updated their guidelines for writing about all people with inclusivity and respect. Before the seventh edition, people were limited to the use of “she” and “he” when referring to others in academic writing, for example, ‘Each student should complete his or her assignment by the due date’.

However, this sentence makes assumptions about the gender of students which may not necessarily be accurate.

A more inclusive, gender-neutral way of writing about people uses the singular “they”, e.g., ‘Each student should complete their essay by the due date’.

Using the singular “they” was once frowned on in academic writing, but it is now endorsed as part of APA Style because “it is inclusive of all people and helps writers avoid making assumptions about gender” (APA, 2020).

The singular “they” should be used in two main instances:

When referring to a generic person whose gender is unknown or irrelevant to the context; and
When referring to a specific, known person who uses “they” as their pronoun (Lee, 2019).

If you are writing about a specific, known person, always use that person’s pronoun. It might be “he”, “she”, “they” – if you’re unsure, ask them what designation they prefer and use that language (APA, 2020).

If a person uses “she” or “he”, you must use that pronoun. Do not use “they”. Similarly, if a person uses “they”, do not use “he” or “she” (Lee, 2019).

Here are some examples of bias-free language.

When you are writing about people, it is important to talk them with respect. And its a good idea to use the language that people use to describe themselves. In general, descriptive phrases are preferred over using adjectives as nouns to describe people. When reporting age, precise age ranges are preferred over broad, open-ended definitions (APA, 2020).

The APA’s guidelines for using bias-free language cover a range of individual characteristics, such as age, disability, gender, racial and ethnic identity, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status. Take a look at the online resources listed at the end of this video and do your own research to make sure your academic writing is always clear, precise, and respectful. 

In APA 7th edition, guidelines for in-text citations have been simplified. The in-text citation for a work with three or more authors has now been shortened to include only the first author’s name and “et al.”, even in the first citation.

There are also changes to the number of authors that are included in a reference entry. Previously, you were expected to list up to 7 authors in your reference list.

When using APA 7 style, you must provide all the surnames and initials for up to 20 authors in the reference list.

When there are up to 20 authors, use an ampersand before the last author’s name.

When citing works by 21 or more authors, you must include the first 19 authors, then insert an ellipsis (set of dots) before the last author’s name.

When citing books in your reference list, provide the author, year of publication, title and publisher of the book. Do not include the publisher location.

If the book includes a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.

In cases where the book’s author and publisher are an exact match, the publisher is also omitted.

Most journal articles and books have a DOI. A DOI, or Digital Object Identifier, is a unique link that makes it easier for readers to retrieve online content (APA, 2020).

You should include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, even if you didn’t use the online version.

To format your reference list correctly in APA 7, present DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks.

Also remember that:

Because a hyperlink links readers directly to the article, do not include the words “Retrieved from” before the DOI.

The formatting of DOIs has changed over time. So remember to change all DOIs into the new, preferred format for all reference entries.

Also, do not add line breaks manually, and don’t add a full stop after the DOI because this could interfere with the link’s functionality (APA, 2020).

The link should live be if the work is to be published or read online.

URLs are also no longer preceded by “Retrieved from”. The words “Retrieved from” are only used when a retrieval date is needed (e.g., if you were citing a Census report where content changes frequently over time).

eBooks are now treated the same as print books. If the book includes a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.

If an online work does not have a DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the publisher name. Don’t include the publisher location.

You would only include a URL if the online work doesn’t have a DOI and is not from an academic research database.

Also, when citing ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g., Kindle) is no longer included in the reference.

Also, make sure you always use the most specific date possible for webpages.

If a journal uses article numbers, include the word “Article” before the number instead of the page range.

This how-to video has highlighted just some of the important changes that students will need to know when writing in APA 7th style.

There are a lot of other changes too. For more information about APA Style, speak with your SCU librarians – they will be able to help you. There are also great online resources from the APA website (listed here).

We hope you’ve found this video helpful, but if you have more questions, ask your SCU librarian or check out the great online resources in the Student Learning Zone, on the university website.

 

Introduction to referencing (6:14)

Hello and welcome to an introductory video on referencing for academic writing.

So what exactly is referencing?

Referencing is a method used to acknowledge when ideas, information, data, words, images or examples from the work of others are included in your academic writing. Referencing is one of the most important ways that students practice academic integrity when writing at university. Academic integrity is about applying the belief that honesty is at the core of exemplary scholarship.

So why is it important to reference?

Firstly, practicing academic integrity is all about acknowledging when we use the work of others and only taking credit for work we create ourselves. This is important to allow others to find sources of evidence to build upon the academic knowledge you have produced. Thirdly it's about acknowledging and showing respect. It's also about validity and credibility so good referencing strengthens your writing. And finally, often at university we are expected to use certain sources for particular pieces of assessment by referencing correctly you prove that you have used these sources and also show your marker the scope of your research.

So what is involved in referencing?

Well, whenever you synthesize or put together information from a number of sources and incorporate it with your own ideas you must acknowledge where all of these ideas came from. The most common writing types that require referencing are paraphrasing or stating an idea in your own words summarizing and direct quotations using the exact words of another person. Secondly, it's very important that you use the appropriate style and format to acknowledge the work of others this is achieved in two different ways within academic writing. In in-text citations which are found within the paragraphs and in real reference list.

So what does referencing look like?

Here's a couple of examples of in-text referencing where the author of the original ideas is acknowledged within the paragraphs it's optional whether you use this information prominent style where the author's name is included in the citation brackets or this author prominent style where the author's name is incorporated into the sentence in a grammatically correct manner. It's best to use a combination of both of these styles in your in-text citations. And for your reference list here we can see the entries for a typical journal article you can see that Harvard and APA entries are included here this is because they are the two most commonly used referencing styles at scu note the difference between the two styles here such as the use of brackets around the year of publication for APA but not for Harvard.

So when is it necessary to use citations in your academic writing?

You must reference every time you use evidence to support your arguments and claims that have come from the literature you have sourced. This includes tables statistics and images, definitions of terms or concepts, quoting summarizing and paraphrasing.

So what's involved in the process?

There are roughly five steps in producing accurate referencing. First you need to identify the style required for your school or unit, then identify the type of source that you are using, third identify and record the required elements from the source and you'll find these required elements in your guides for each style and then it's about entering the required referencing into your assignment. Both in text and in the reference list. And finishing with some editing and double checking this means doing a cross check to ensure that all of your sources cited in your writing are in the reference list and vice versa all of the sources included in your reference list have been cited in text.

I'll show you quickly where to find the SCU referencing guides if you go to the library web page scroll to the bottom to find the quick links you can access the referencing guides through these two links

if you click Libguides it will take you to this page where you can click on the appropriate referencing guide. If you click the referencing link you'll find the referencing guides listed by school. So just scroll through until you find your school and the particular guide that you should be using.

Further resources are available on the student learning zone web page to access the student learning zone click on current students then student learning zone and it will bring you to this home page. From here you can access how to videos on APA and Harvard referencing you can access the quick guides on summarizing and paraphrasing using quotations and other aspects of academic integrity and avoiding plagiarism.

There are also workshops available throughout the session and recordings of previous workshops on avoiding plagiarism and (examples of good) academic writing. Through the student appointments link you can use the ask a question function to ask a learning coach about referencing or submit your assignment for review.

You can also book an appointment to speak directly with a learning coach who can provide advice on referencing and academic integrity. You can also speak directly with the librarian either on campus or through the library chat function if you click on this button from the library webpage this chat window opens up. From here you can ask the librarian for help.

Thank you for watching. All the best with your studies and again please contact the student learning zone or the library if you require any further information on referencing.

How to reference a chapter in a book in APA 7th style (6:37)

Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video. Today we are going to talk about how to write a reference for a chapter in a book using APA 7th style.

As you may know, in APA7th style, ebooks are treated the same as print books – and to create your reference entry correctly, you’ll need the following elements:

“….the publisher name plus any applicable DOI or URL”

Notice that a publisher location is not included in APA 7th style.

So let’s take a look at what a reference entry for a chapter in a book looks like in APA 7th style.

So, here’s an example of the basic format for referencing a chapter in an edited book.

You can see that the first element is the chapter author names. Note that the names are inverted so that the last name comes first, followed by a comma and then the initials. Notice that there is a space between the initials and these are punctuated with a full stop. But notice that after the first author’s initial we have a full stop and a comma before the ampersand. The next element is the year of publication which is contained in round brackets and punctuated with a full stop.

Next, we have the title of the chapter. Notice that the title is in normal font, it is not italicised, and it’s in sentence case (which means that only the first letter of the first word is capitalised). And the chapter name ends with a full stop.

Now, the next element is the names of the editors. Here, we write the word “In” followed by the editor names. Notice that the editor names are not inverted, so the editors’ initials comes before their last name. The editor name is followed by an abbreviation of the word “Editors” which we can see has a capitalised “E” and a lower case “ds”. This information is punctuated with a full stop and contained in round brackets, which is followed immediately by a comma.

Next, we have the title of the whole book, which we can see is in italics. Now after the title, in round brackets, we have any edition information as well as the page range of the chapter. You can see that the edition information and the page rage is separated by a comma, and that the page rage is denoted by pp.

Then the next element is the name of the publisher, followed by a full stop, followed by the DOI or URL. Note that we don’t put a full stop after the DOI or URL.

So, here’s an example of a reference for a book.

You can see that the chapter author names are inverted, and that the initials are punctuated with a full stop. Notice the comma separating first author’s initial from the ampersand. The next element is the year of publication which is contained in round brackets and punctuated with a full stop.

Next, we have the title of the chapter. Notice that the title is in normal font and in sentence case and punctuated with a full stop.

Now, the next element is the name of the editor. We can see that the editor’s initial comes before the last name along with the word “In” (capitalised). The editor name is followed by an abbreviation of the word “Editor” which we can see has a capitalised “E”, a lower case “d”, and a full stop, which is contained within round brackets. This is followed by a comma.

Next, we have the title of the whole book, which we can see is in italics, and the page range which is contained in round brackets. Then the last element is the name of the publisher, followed by a full stop. We would include a DOI here if one was available.

Now, this book is from an academic research database, so we can end the reference after the publisher name; we don’t include the publisher location. But if we were citing a book that did not have a DOI and was not from an academic research database, then we would include a URL.

And just remember when constructing your reference list, the heading “references” should be in the centre and in bold. Your entries should be in alphabetical order based on the author surnames. Your entries should be doubled spaced, without extra spacing between, and should have a hanging indent. Lastly, make sure all works cited in-text are in your list and all entries in your list are cited in-text.

So now you now how to reference a chapter in a book in APA 7th style. If you want to know more about referencing, have a look at SCU’s online referencing guides – you can find a link to those guides on the library’s homepage – or ask your friendly Learning Experience Team – and good luck with your referencing!

Paraphrasing, citing in-text APA 7th style (4:14)

Hello and welcome to this short video on how to cite in-text by paraphrasing in APA 7th referencing style.

This video will cover the methods used to paraphrase. examples of these and some final points to remember. Now there are two ways if we want to reference a paraphrase in text using APA 7th referencing style.

These are author focused and information focused and we're going to look at both of these today.

Firstly if we look at author focused what happens is the author's name or names if there are multiple authors appear outside of the brackets usually in these types of citations the author will appear at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence and we use this method if we want to draw particular attention to the author that we have referenced.

Let's have a look at some examples. Here is the original text written by Smith and we can see it says;

Students often find referencing in the main text of their work a little difficult to understand and do correctly.

So we want to use that idea but obviously we have to paraphrase it into our own words and then reference Smith.

So the first method shows that the author starts the sentence Smith in brackets (2012) argued that in-text citations could be a little confusing.

That is one way to achieve that paraphrase the second example we have added the reporting verb first so according to Smith (2012), in brackets again and then a comma in-text citations could be a little confusing.

And now the final example has moved the author further into the middle of the sentence;

In-text citations can be quite confusing as Smith (2012) pointed out in a recent study.

So all three of these are equally valid but. Just notice that Smith appears outside of the brackets in each case.

Now if we move on to information focus style paraphrasing in this case the author's name or names appear inside the brackets this type of citation will often appear in the middle or at the end of the sentence and unlike author focus referencing this is what we use if we want to draw attention to the actual information itself.

So here are some examples of how we would use information focus referencing again we have the original text (written by Smith) Students often find referencing in the main text of their work a little difficult to understand and do correctly.

So that's the idea we want to use so we need to paraphrase it and reference Smith so in the first example you can see that the author now appears at the end of the reference;

It has been argued that in-text citations could be a little confusing (Smith, 2012).

An important feature of APA 7th referencing is that the comma always appears between the author or authors and the year so it's important not to leave that small detail out.

A second example shows the author appearing in the middle of the sentence in-text citations can be a little confusing.

There's the paraphrase (Smith, 2012), in brackets and then we have added our own comment to that and this poses a major challenge for students.

So if the author and the information prominent are suitable methods to paraphrase.

The important thing to remember with paraphrasing however as we've seen in those examples is keeping the original meaning of the idea and words we want to use but putting them into our own words.

That is the crucial point, that is how we avoid plagiarism. The other thing to remember now that we have both of these styles is that using a combination of these can also help vary your writing.

So instead of just using one author first or information first and having repetitive writing, try mixing it up a little to give it that variety.

And that will bring us to the end of this video.

We hope that it's been helpful to you and good luck with all of your referencing.

Referencing websites in APA 7th style (4:11)

Hello and welcome to this short video on how to reference websites in APA 7th.

To do this we'll need some specific pieces of information.

We'll need the author or authors this can be an individual or it can be an organization referred to as a group author. Next we'll need the date of publication or the latest update we'll need the title of the website and the title of the webpage or document found on the web page.

The format for the reference will differ slightly depending on whether it's individual or a group author. This format is found on the APA 7th libguide. Just note the url link should be live so the reader can click on it and go directly to the page and we want to use the most specific date possible for our reference entries.

So let's have a look at some examples.

First, we'll look at a web page with an individual author then we'll look at a web page with a group author. So here we have a generic web page, the individual who authored this page is here and the date of publication is below that. The title of the page is here nice and clearly and the title of the website is here. Lastly the url can be found here.

So, I've compiled that information.

The next step is to match the APA 7th formatting. So, this is the formatting from the APA 7th libguide and as you can see this entry matches it perfectly. We have the author's surname, Darling, a comma followed by the first initial b and a full stop. Next we have the year of publication in brackets and remember to use the most specific date which is June 1st 2020. Followed by another full stop.

Next the webpage title is in italics with another full stop followed by the website title, Urban List and another full stop before the url. So, let's have a look at a group author example now.

Here is a web page by the world health organization because there is no individual author listed we are going to use the group author which is usually found here.

You can see the date of publication here and the title of the web page.

Lastly we have the url here so again I've compiled this information now let's have a look at the libguide formatting.

So, this again is straight from your libguide and this is what the entry looks like when you match that formatting as you can see we have the group author world health organization full stop the specific date of publication or last update in brackets and another full stop. We have the title in italics followed by a full stop and because the name of the website is the same as the group name we don't need to include that here. Lastly because this information may change as the world health organization undertakes more research. I've included the retrieval date in the form of retrieved August 31st 2020 from and the url.

So that's what the entry looks like when you follow the APA 7 format.

Now let's look at what that looks like in the reference list. Here are our two entries in alphabetical order, double spacing with a hanging indent. Note you can use ctrl t or command t to quickly get the hanging indent.

Lastly as a reminder make sure your heading references is centred and bold, make sure your entries are in alphabetical order by the surname, use double spacing without adding any extra spaces between entries and don't forget to check and make sure you've included all the sources cited in text.

So we hope this video has been useful. Happy referencing.

Quotations, citing in-text APA 7th (5:29)

Hello and welcome to this short video on how to cite in text using direct quotations in APA 7th referencing style.

This video will cover the methods used to quote in text some examples of these and some final points to remember. The rules for quoting revolve around the length of the quote for quotes less than 40 words they should be included in the main sentence in the text. However if your quote is more than 40 words they should be presented in block format and indented without quotation marks.

We'll look at examples of both of these. So firstly we have the author focus style of direct quotes Here the author's name or names if there are multiple authors appear outside of the brackets Usually this type of citation occurs at the beginning or the middle of the sentence and we use it if we want to draw particular attention to the author we are using.

So here are some examples of this using a short quote our original text written by Jones is that students often find getting the reference list exactly correct quite difficult.

We're going to use that quote word for word but in three examples just have a look at the different position of the author's name. In the first one Jones is outside of the brackets as we said then 2017 a comma and the p there represents page number and we need a page number when we are direct quoting in APA 7 style.

In the second one you can see something has changed the reporting verb in this case according to comes before the author and then the quote occurs and finally we have an introduction to the idea. Many students experience great difficulty in. And then using the part of the quote that we want. As Jones 2017 page seven pointed out in a recent study. These are all variations of doing the same thing with direct quotes.

Now let's have a look at an author focused example with a longer quote so as we said earlier if a direct quote is for is longer than 40 words it has to be presented in a different style. We have the original text this time written by two authors now if we look at the quote you can see that it has been presented in a different way.

So according to McRudden and Ross notice that both the authors appear outside of the brackets and notice that we use the actual word and a and d to refer to them.

Then we have the brackets 2017 and the page number which is what is required for direct quotes. In this case however we don't use any quotation marks it has been indented into a block as you can see there. Now if I move away from author focused I can also introduce a quote with information focus in this case the author's name or names appear inside the brackets. We usually find this type of quotation in the middle or end of the sentence and we use it when we want to draw attention to the actual information itself rather than the author.

So an example might look like this. Again here is the original short text which i'll use in my quote that is under 40 words students often find getting the reference list exactly correct quite difficult.

Okay so this is how it might look it has been argued that and now I have the direct quote. Students often find getting the references exactly correct quite difficult followed by the citation in brackets Jones comma 2017 comma p.7 for page seven. A couple of things to notice here. Notice that it's a double quotation mark that we use in APA 7 style which is important to remember.

The other thing to notice is that the author is inside the brackets with the year this time and notice that there is a comma between the two again this is an important part of APA referencing that can't be overlooked.

The final thing I want to draw your attention to here is notice in our original text that was the start of a sentence now we have changed the capital S to a lowercase s to fit grammatically in our sentence because we have started it with. It has been argued that which is what you should be doing when you're using direct quotes in your work.

So here is an example of an information focused long quote again over 40 words so it is widely known that and we have used the same text as last time but instead of having the authors at the beginning you can now see that the authors appear at the end of the reference there notice that both authors appear in the brackets with the year and notice what's happened to the end once the end appears inside the brackets. It changes to the symbol if the authors are outside of the brackets we use the actual word and also notice there is a comma between the authors and the year and we also have the page number again.

So that brings us to the end of our short video on quotations remember to use those different styles to add variation to your work and we hope this has been helpful.

Good luck with all your referencing.

How to reference a book in APA 7th style (6:13)

Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video. Today we’ll talk about how to write a reference for a book using APA 7th style.

In this video, we’ll learn how to write a reference for whole authored books for different editions of
books and for edited books.

Now in APA7th style, ebooks are treated the same as print books – and to create your reference entry correctly, you’ll need the following elements:

“….the publisher name plus any applicable DOI or URL” A DOI, or digital object identifier is a unique link that helps readers easily locate online content.

Notice that the publisher location is no longer included in APA 7th style.

So let’s take a look at what a reference entry for a book looks like in APA 7th style.

So, here’s an example of the basic format we use for referencing a book.

We invert the names so that the authors’ last name comes first, followed by a comma, and the initials. Where the author has two initials, we leave a space between the initials and all the initials are punctuated with a full stop. After the last initial we have the year of publication in round brackets followed by a full stop. Then we have the title of the book, which you can see is in italics and sentence case. Sentence case just means that only the first word of the title is capitalised. Then we have any relevant edition information which is in abbreviated form and contained within round brackets. And then the publisher name followed by a full stop, plus any relevant DOI or URL. Notice that there is no full stop after the DOI or URL.

So, let’s see how this format fits with a real example.

So here’s an example using an actual book. You can see that the author name is inverted so that the last name comes first, followed by a comma and the initial, which is punctuated with a full stop. Then we have the year of publication in round brackets, followed by a full stop.

The THIRD element is the title of the book. As you can see, the title is in italics and in sentence case. Note that when there is a two-part title like this one, capitalise the first word of the second part of the title.

Next, we have the name of the publisher followed by a full stop. We would include a DOI here if one was available.

Now, this book is from an academic research database, so we can end the reference after the publisher name; we don’t include the publisher location. But if we were citing an ebook that was not from an academic research database, then we would include a URL.

Now, what if we were citing a book that was in a later edition than the first edition? Let’s take a look…

Here is an example of a reference for a book in its fifth edition.

Notice that all the elements follow the same pattern as our previous example, only in this case, the author is the American Psychiatric Association. Again, the year of publication is contained in round brackets followed by a full stop. The title of the work comes next, in italics, and you can see after the title, in brackets, we have the edition information.

The edition information is abbreviated– you can see we have “fifth edition” in abbreviated form, with a lower case “ed” standing for “edition”. This edition information is contained within round brackets and followed with a full stop.

Now, you might notice that the publisher name is missing from this reference entry. Well, in this particular case, the publisher is the same as the author. In APA 7th style, when the publisher is the same as the author, we do not include the publisher name. So you can see here that we have omitted the publisher name, and ended the reference with the DOI.

Notice that the DOI is presented as a hyperlink, and this is the correct way to present DOI’s when using APA 7th style.

Here is an example of a reference for an edited book.

Again, we can see same basic format as our previous examples, only in this case, the names and initials are those of the editors. After the names, we have the abbreviation for the word “editors”. Notice that the abbreviation for editors is denoted by a capital “E”, and is punctuated by a full stop, and contained within round brackets. This brackets are followed by a full stop before the year of publication. Then, we have the title of the book, which is in italics and sentence case.

Notice that this reference includes the publisher name, and includes a DOI, like our previous example.

A final point: remember that when constructing your reference list, the heading “references” should be in the centre and in bold. Your entries should be in alphabetical order based on the author surnames. Your entries should be doubled spaced, without extra spacing between, and should have a hanging indent. Lastly, make sure that all works cited in-text of your assignment also appear in your reference list.

So now you now how to reference books using APA 7th style. We hope this short video has been helpful. You can find more information about referencing on SCU’s referencing homepage, or you can contact your SCU librarian, or one of the Learning Experience Team who would be happy to help you.

Referencing a journal article in APA 7th style (3:21)

Hello and welcome to this short video on how to construct a reference for a journal article in APA 7th.

In order to do this we're going to need the following bits of information. We're going to need the author's name or names, the year of publications the title of both the article and the journal that it appears in, we're going to need the volume number the issue number, the page range and the doi otherwise known as the digital object identifier.

So this is the format that we use for a journal article.

This is found on the APA 7th lib guide so let's see how this would look with an example of a journal article. So here is the article we will be using.

So first we're going to need the names of the authors so here we have two authors we're going to need their surnames and their initials.

We're also going to need the year of publication the title of the article the journal title, the volume issue and page range.

Lastly we need the doi found here. So all of the information we need for our referencing is present on the first page of the journal.

Okay so let's see how this information can be used to format a reference for a journal article correctly in APA 7th.

So we've listed out all the information that we need here. Everything from the surname to the doi so now that we have all this information let's see how to format it correctly.

Here I've copied over the template from the APA 7th referencing guide for a journal article with two authors we're going to use. This as a point of reference because this is going to tell me how to lay out all of this information I found and in what order.

It's also going to give all of the required punctuation and spacing and other formatting that I need so every comma, full stop, capital, space, bracket and italic font [are] is all provided for me if I copy that template.

So let's see how this would look with the information we took off our journal. So here we are; notice the information appears in the exact same order and I've been careful to follow all the punctuation to match the libguide.

The next thing you want to do is create a list with your reference.

So first you want to format it so it's double spaced and then you want to create a hanging indent. A hanging indent refers to when the first line sits on the left margin but all subsequent lines are indented.

You can achieve this by the control or command T function in word. And a final reminder when conducting your reference list, the heading references should be in the center and in bold, your entries should be in alphabetical order based on the surnames, entries should be double spaced with no extra spacing between and should have a hanging indent and lastly, make sure all the works cited in text are in your list and all entries in your list are cited in text.

And that's it for this video. Thank you for watching and happy referencing.

Referencing articles, news agency websites APA 7th style (2:40)

Hello and welcome to this short video on how to reference online news articles in APA 7th.

To do this we'll need some specific pieces of information.

We'll need the author or author's name.

Next we'll need the date of publication or the latest update.

We'll need the title of the article, the title of the news agency and also the url.

So the format for the reference is found on the APA seventh libguide. Just note the url link should be live so the reader can access the article by clicking on it and going directly to the page and we want to use the most specific date possible for our entries.

So let's have a look at an example. Here we have a BBC News article, the individual who authored the article is here, the date of publication is below that, the title of the page is here and the title of the news agency is here. Lastly the url can be found right there so here I've compiled that information.

The next step is to use it to match the APA 7th formatting. So again here we have the format from that libguide and as you can see we've got an entry that matches that. We have the surname Murray a comma, followed by the first initial a and a full stop.

Next we have the year of publication in brackets and using this most specific date which is August 27 2020 followed by another full stop.

Next we have the title which is in italics in this case the title finishes with the question mark so that will take the place of the full stop. This is followed by the news agency title BBC News and another full stop before the url.

So this is what it would look like as a reference entry. Remember for APA 7th your references should be double spaced with a hanging indent where the first line aligns with the left margin and subsequent lines are indented. Note that you can use ctrl or command t to get that hanging indent quickly.

Lastly as a reminder make sure to use the heading references centred and in bold. Make sure your entries are in alphabetical order by the surname and that you're using double spacing without adding any extra spaces between entries and don't forget to make sure that you've concluded all the sources in text.

So we hope this video has been useful and happy referencing.


APA 6th Edition and Harvard referencing styles

APA 6 Style

Paraphrasing - How to cite in-text in APA 6 style

Hello and welcome to the short video prepared by academic skills and today we are going to look at how to cite in-text using paraphrasing and doing it in APA 6th referencing style.

Now there are two ways if we want to reference a paraphrase in-text using APA 6th style, and the two ways are Author-focused and the second is information focused and we’re going to look at both of these today.

Now firstly, if we look at author-focused what happens if the authors name or names if there are multiple authors appear outside of the brackets. Now usually this type of citations, the author-focused will appear at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence and we use this method if we want to draw particular attention to the author that we have referenced.

Let’s have a look at some examples

Here is the original text written by Smith and we cans see that students often find referencing in the main text of their work a little difficult to understand and do correctly.

So we want to use that idea, but obviously we have to paraphrase into our own word and then reference Smith, so the first method shows that the author starts the sentence.

Smith, in brackets, (2012) argued that in-text citations could be a little confusing. That is one way to achieve that paraphrase.

The second example we have added the reporting verb first.  So, according to Smith (2012), in brackets again and then a comma, in text citation could be a little confusing.

And now the final example has moved the author further into the middle of the sentence. In-text citations can be quiet confusing, as Smith (2012) pointed out in a recent study.

So all three of these are equally valid, but just notice that Smith appears outside of the brackets in each case.

Now if we move onto information-focused style paraphrasing, in this case the authors name or names um appear inside the brackets. Now this type of citations will often appear in the middle of a sentence or at the end of a sentence. And unlike author focused referencing, this is what we use if we want to draw attention to the actual information itself.

So here are some example of how we would use information focused referencing, again we have the original text written by Smith.

Students often find referencing in the main text of their work a little difficult to understand and so correctly. So that the idea we want to use, so we need to paraphrase it and reference Smith.

So in the first example you can see that the author now appears at the end of the reference, Is has been argued that in-text citations could be a little confusing (Smith, - comma - 2012). An important feature of APA 6th referencing is that comma always appears between the author or authors and the year, so it’s important not to leave that small detail out.

Um our second example shows Smith appearing or the author in this case, Smith appearing in the middle of the sentence. In-text citations can be a little confusing, - there’s the paraphrase – (Smith, - comma - 2012) and then we have added our own comment to that – and this poses a major challenge for students.

So both of these ways are suitable. Both the author um and the information prominent um suitable um the important to remember with paraphrasing, however, as we have seen in those examples, it means keeping the original meaning of the idea and words we want to use, but putting it into our own words, that is the crucial point, that is how we avoid plagiarism. Um the other important thing to remember, now that we have both of these styles, is that using a combination of these can also help vary your writing. So instead of just of just using one author first or information first and having repetitive writing try mixing it up a little bit to give it that variety.

Anyway, that will begin us to the end of this this short video, we hope it has been helpful to you and good luck with all of your referencing.

Quotations - How to cite in-text in APA 6 style

Hello, and welcome to this short video prepared by Academic Skills. And today we are going g to look at how to cite in text using direct quotations using APA 6th referencing style. Now the rules for doing this involve the length of the quote. For quotes less than 40 words they should be included in the main sentence in a text. However, if your quote is 40 words or longer they should be presented in block format and indented, and we’ll look at examples of both of these.

Now, firstly, we have the author-focused style of direct quotes. Now the authors name or names if there are multiple authors appear outside of the brackets. Now usually this type of citation occurs at the beginning or the middle of the sentence. And we use it if we want to draw particular attention of the author we are using. So here are some examples of this using a short quote. Okay, now our original text, written by Jones is that - Students often find getting the reference list exactly correct quite difficult.

We’re going to use that direct quote word for word but in the three examples just have a look at the different in the position of the authors name.

In the first one, Jones outside of the brackets, as we said, then 2017, a comma and the p there represents page number, and we need a page number when we are direct quoting in APA 6th style.

So we have the author the reporting verb - argues - and then the direct quote.  In the second one, you can see something has changed, the reporting verb in this case - According to - comes before the author and then the quote occurs.

An finally, we have an introduction to the idea  - Many students experience great difficulty in – an then using the part of the quote that we want as Jones 2017 page 7 pointed out in a recent study.

So these are all variation of doing the same thing with direct quotes.

Now, let’s have a look at an author-focused example with a longer quote. So as we said earlier, if a direct quote is longer than 40 words it has to be presented in a different style. We have the original text this time written by two authors. Now if we look at the quote you can see that it has been presented in a different way, we have two author here as I said, so - According to McRudden and Ross, notice that both authors appear outside of the brackets and notice that we use the actual word and A N D, to referrer to them, then I have the brackets, 2017 and the page number, which is what I require for direct quotes. In this case, however, we don’t use any quotation marks it has been indented in to a block, as you can see there. So, there are no quotation marks and then I put, this is what the original text said, and I put that straight down in a block quote, indented.

Now, if I move away author-focused quotes, I can also introduce a quote with information-focus. Now in this case the authors name or names appear inside the brackets. Now we usually find this type of quotation in the middle or end of the sentence and we use it when we want to draw attention to the actual information itself rather than the author. So, example might look like this.

Again here is my original text, which I will use in my short quote under 40 words.

Students often find getting the reference list exactly correct quite difficult. Okay, so this is how it might look.

It has been argued that – and now I have the direct quote – “students often find getting the reference list exactly correct quite difficult”

A couple of things to notice here, notice that it is a double quotation mark that we used in APA 6th style and that is an important thing to remember. The other thing to notice is that the author is inside the brackets with the year this time and notice there is a comma between the two, again this is an important part of APA referencing that can’t be overlooked.

The final thing I want to draw your attention to their, is notice in our original text that was the start of a sentence. We have changed the big S to a small S to fit our sentence because we have started it with - It has been argued that-, which is what you should be doing when you are using direct quotes in your work.

Now an example of an information focused long quote, again over 40 words, so it is widely known that, and we have used the same text as last time but instead of having the authors at the beginning you can now see that the authors appear at the end of the reference there. Now, notice that both authors appear in the brackets with the year and notice what’s happened to the and. Once the and appear inside the brackets it changes to that ampersand symbol. If the authors are outside of the brackets we use the actual word and. Also notice there is the comma between the authors and the year and we also have the page number again.

 

So that begins us to the end of our short video on quotations. Remember to use those different styles to add variation to your work and we hope this has been helpful. So Good Luck with all of your referencing.

How to write a reference for journal articles in APA 6 referencing style

Hello and today we are going to look at how to write a reference for a journal article using APA 6th style. Now in order to do this we are going to need the following bits of information.

Now firstly, we are going to need to know the authors name or names. We’re going to need the year of publications, we’ll need the title of both the article and the journal that it appears in. We’re going to need the volume number, we’ll need the issue number if required, we will also need the page range, and finally we’ll need something called the DOI, which is otherwise known as a Digital Object Identifier.

So, let’s see how this information would look when we look at an example of a journal article to see where we can find it. Now firstly we’re going to need the names of the authors, so here we have two authors, so here we have their family name and we’re also going to need their initials. We are also going to need the year of publication, which is here. We’re going to need the title of the article itself that appears here. And we’re also going to need the title of the journal that it appears in, and here is the journal title here. We’re also going to need the volume number. Um we have the issue number here for use if we require it and we are also going to need the page range, which appears here. The last bit of information we need is the DOI or Digital Object Identifier, which can be found here.

So, all of the information we need for our referencing is present on the first page of the journal.

Okay, so let’s see how that information can be used to format a reference for a journal article correctly in APA 6th style. So, we’ve listed out all the information that we need here, everything from the author’s surname to the DOI. Notice that we have a red start next to the issue number, ah, as we said before we only use the issue number if required, and the reason we do this is because of something called pagination.

Now pagination is related to page numbers and how a journal issues its volumes. Now if a journal issues its volumes in separate issues that all start at page 1, then the issue number is required. So, a journal article with a relatively low page range number, so for example my journal article might appear from pages 36-44 is likely to follow format where the issue number is used. If however, the page range number is relatively high, for example 1480 to 1486, then this tells us that the journal releases its volume with continuous page numbers rather than starting at page one at each issue. Now in this case, no issue number is required, and just some information from the SCU APA 6th guide available on the library website has been included here.

So let’s how this affects our particular article, thinking of the page range, you can see that this is quite a high page range, which for the reasons mentioned earlier, tells me I will not be requiring and issue number for this particular reference.

So now that I have this information, let’s see how I format it correctly. Now what I have done here is I have copied over the template from the APA 6th referencing guide available in the library and I’ve just copied that into my Word document as a point of reference. Okay, so it’s going to tell me how to lay out all of this information I found correctly and in what order. Crucially, it’s also going to have all of the required punctuation and spacing that, and other formatting that I need, so every comma, full stop, capitals, space, brackets, italics is all provided for me if I copy that template over.

So, let’s see how this would look with the information we took off our journal article. So, here is my template here, and I am going to use this to populate my reference list. So I have followed the references as they appear on the template. So the information appears in the exact same order and I have been careful to follow all punctuation. Here in this case, we do not have the issue number because as discuss earlier the page range is quite high, okay. Notice that both are double spaced and there is still one difference, the example from the referencing guide has what we call a hanging indent. So the first line appears as normal and then every subsequent line is indented. Now to achieve this, the simplest way to do it is to simply select the entire reference and then hit control T or command T and it will set that format out for me. That’s the easiest way to go about this.

So, let’s see how this would like using another journal article as an example. So again, I need exactly the same information. I need the author’s names

I’m going to need the year. I need the title of the article which is found here. I need the title of the journal that it appears in, which is here. I have my volume number, I have my issue number if I need it and we are also have my page range, and finally I also have the DOI okay. So again I have managed to find all of that information on the first page. So I am going to go back to my template and see how I can reference it.

So again I have put all of the information I found on the front page of the Journal article into the columns that we used earlier. Everything from the authors surnames down to the DOI. Notice because of the low page range we are going to be using the issue number this times. So again let’s see how that would look in correct format. I have copied over the template again to help me and I can just put the information into the order again paying attention to all punctuation, spacing and formatting, such as italics, okay. Again, I don’t have my hanging indent so the easiest way to do this will be to select that and hit control T and now I am ready to go.

Just a word on DOI’s you will notice that the referencing guide provides three examples of these, there are different formats of DOI’s, just take which ever one appears in your particular journal article. If however, there is not DOI available you will have to use this format for electronic journal articles. You’ll have to write Retrieved from and then you will have to provide the URL of the journal homepage.

If you have any further queries about any of the referencing concepts that we have discussed today, please make an appointment with academic skills or go and visit the library.

How to write a reference for a website in APA 6th referencing style

Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video to show you how to write a reference for a website using APA 6th referencing style.

To do this we’ll need some specific pieces of information. The first thing you’ll need is either the author name or names or if you don’t know that, the organisation name. Then, you’ll need the year of publication or the date of the last update. You’ll need the title of the specific document you have found on the web or the title of the website itself, or the section of the website – whatever it is that you’ve been looking at and that you got your information from. Then you’ll need the URl and you’ll write that URL with the words ‘Retrieved from’ at the beginning and I’ll show you that shortly.

Ok, so let’s have a look at an actual example. What I’ve got here is a section of a website that’s been written by a particular person. The author name as you can see is this person – you’ve got a nice picture too, you don’t always get a picture – but her name is Samantha Morris.

After that the thing that you will need is the year of publication or the last update. Now, typically you’ll find the last update somewhere down the bottom of the site … I’m looking around, I can’t seem to see it … it does sound like pretty up-to-date information but I can’t find an actual date so, in that case, what we’re going to do is use ‘n.d.’, which means ‘no date’, and you’ll see that in the example we do shortly.

Then, the title of the specific section or the document, so this title is ‘Gold Coast’s Best Camping Spots’, and after that we need the URL and that of course is up here in the URL bar.

Now let’s see what this looks like as a reference. So what I’ve got here is the information that we just got from the website.

Now, to make our reference list in APA style we need to start on a new page with our bold, centred heading ‘References’. Then the author name – family name and initial. Then, the year. We didn’t know the year so it’s ‘n.d.’ but of course if you do know the year it goes in here. Then the title of the web document or website or the section of the website ‘Gold Coast’s best camping spots’ with only ‘Gold Coast’ capitalised, and then retrieved from the website.

Now remember it is very important to always check the referencing guide, the SCU Referencing LibGuide for where every comma, full stop, bracket, italic and so on must go. That’s all very important, or you can just come back here and check this video.

Now, there’s two more things we need to do. Anytime a reference in APA has more than one line – and this one has two – the second, third, fourth, any other line except for the first needs to be indented. That's called a ‘hanging indent’. Now, it’s very easy to do this. All you need to do is select the reference, and you can select more than one reference if you have more than one, and all you need to do is press and hold the ‘CTRL’ key on your keyboard, or ‘COMMAND’ if you use a Mac, and then at the same time press the letter ‘T’ for ‘Tom’, and you will get your hanging indent like this.

Now, I’ve still got this reference highlighted as the last thing we need to do is to make it double-spaced. So, I’m going to keep it highlighted and I’m coming up here and I’m making that reference double-spaced.

And there you go. That’s how you write your APA reference for a website. I hope this has been helpful and good luck with your studies.

How to write a reference for an online newspaper article in APA 6th style

Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video on how to write a reference for an online newspaper article in APA 6th Referencing style.

To do this, you’ll need to know a few pieces of information. You’ll need to know the author name or names. You’ll need the year of publication and the actual date of publication, the title of the article. You’ll need the name of the newspaper or the news site, and you’ll need the URL.

OK so let’s have a look at an example of an actual online newspaper article. OK this one comes from ‘The Guardian’, but what we’ll do is we’ll just go through and identify all the information that we need that we just pointed out on the previous slide.

So the first thing we need is the author name, which we can find here – ‘Michael Slezak’. After that we need the year of publication – ‘2017’ – we need the date of publication which is ‘27 July’. After that, the title of the article which we can see here, nice and prominent. After that we need the name of the newspaper which again is ‘The Guardian’. And finally, we need ‘Retrieved from …’ and the website of the article, which we can find up here in the URL bar.

Now let’s see what this looks like in an actual reference. So I’ve just written down here all the information we just got from the newspaper, from the newspaper article. Now to make our reference list in APA style, we need to start on a new page with the bold centred heading ‘References’. Then we’ve got our author name – family name first and then initial, and then the year and date of publication. Then the title with only the first word or any names such as ‘South Australia’ in capitals. Then the name of the newspaper, italics and with capital letters. ‘Retrieved from’ and the website URL or the article URL.

Ok, now just remember it is very important to always check with the SCU Referencing LibGuide for where every comma, full stop, capital letter, italic, bracket etc. must go because all that’s very important, or you could just check back here on this video again.

Now we’re almost done, now there’s just two more things that we need to do. The first thing’s what’s called a ‘hanging indent’. In APA any reference that has more than one line – and this one has four – the second, third, fourth lines need to be indented.

To do that, we just select our reference, and all you need to do is press and hold the ‘CTRL’ key on your keyboard, or ‘COMMAND’ if you use a Mac, and at the same time press the letter ‘T’ for ‘Tom’. And that’s your hanging indent. Very easy, and you can do that for one reference or if you have 20 references you can select all of them and do the same thing.

Now the last thing we need to do is we need to make this reference and all references in APA double-spaced. So to do that, it’s still highlighted so I’m just going to come up here to the spacing tool and make it double-spaced.

And that’s how you write your reference for an online newspaper article. I hope that’s been helpful, and good luck with all of your studies.

How to write a reference for a chapter in an edited book in APA 6th style

Hello. Welcome to this short video prepared by Academic Skills, and today we’re going to look at how to reference a chapter in an edited book in APA 6th referencing style.

Now, in order to do this, we’re going to need the following information. We’re going to need the author name or names of the chapter itself that we’re using. We’re also going to need the year of publication of the book. We’re going to need the title of the chapter. We’re also going to need the name or names of the editors of the book itself. After that we’ll need the title of the book we’re using. Then we’ll need the page range where the chapter starts and ends, and finally we’ll need the place of publication and the publishing company

So, here is a book that we’ve already found. This is a book we want to use, and as you can see at the moment we’ve just got the cover. We’ve got the title of the book – ‘Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis’ – and we have two names here. Now be careful – these are the names of the editors, although it’s not immediately clear that this is the case. To get further information about who has contributed to which part of our book, we have to open the book and look at the first few pages very carefully to find the information that we need.

So, if we open the book we’ll see we have the title of the book again. Then we have more information here about the editors and the series – this isn’t anything we need at the moment, but as we keep looking we’ll see confirmation that in fact these two people are the editors.

We also have a further page of more publisher information, but what we want to start with here is the contents page, and the reason we’re starting here is because this list of contents has a list of all the chapters and, importantly, as you can see, the different authors who wrote those chapters.

Now, for our particular assignment, we’re going to use … we’ve used some material from Chapter 6 here – ‘Critical discourse as a method in social scientific research’. Now the author of this chapter is Norman Fairclough, so that is the first information that we need for our reference list, so we’ll highlight that there.

Ok, now we have to go back and find the year of the publication, so we’ll have to go back to this particular page here where the copyright is here – ‘2001’. So that’s our second piece of information that we’ve found.

Then, we have to go back to get the full chapter title. Again, it’s not the title of the book we want at this stage but the title of the chapter we’re using within it. So here is the title of that chapter that we have used, so we’ll highlight that as well like that.

Now, we have to go back to the book details itself and that involves the editors’ names. In this case we have two editors from memory so we’ll go back and check that. Here we go – edited by these people here so that’s the next bit of information I need so I’ll just highlight that, and then I also need the book title itself so that’s the title there – ‘Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis’ ok?

Now the next thing I need is the page range, so this is where the chapter that I am using starts and ends. So again, we’ll go back to the contents page, and we can see from the contents page that the chapter we’re using starts on page 121 ok. Now the chapter after it starts on page 139, so logically our chapter will finish on 138 which is the previous page. So, our page range will be 121-138.

And then finally, we need the place of publication and we also need the publisher, and again I can come back to this page to find that information. So what we’ll be using is the first one here, and again we don’t need the whole address of this particular publishing house, all we’re interested in is the town or city. In this case it’s London. And then finally, the name of the publisher. The full name is ‘SAGE Publications Limited’ – we can just write ‘SAGE’, that is enough information for our referencing needs.

So now let's see how this information would look in a reference. So we have all of the information that is required in this list here, and now we’re going to see how that information is placed into the reference in the order it appears.

So, first of all we will take the author’s surname. After that we take any initials, in this case it’s only one because the author’s name is Norman. If there were two names here, we would have more than one initial. After a full stop we have the year of publication in brackets, and after that we have the name of the chapter itself, so this is the name of the chapter that will appear in the book, ok?

Now, when we are referencing a chapter in an edited book, we have the author of the chapter here, but it is the editors of the book that appear here, and you’ll notice that the order has been inverted in terms of initial and surname. So, when we’re dealing with the editors it is in fact the initial or initials first and then the surname after that. After that we put in brackets the shortening ‘eds.’, short for ‘editors’, and finally after that we have the name of the actual book that it appears in, and it is this title that is in italics in this case here.

The next piece of information that we use is the page range, so the ‘pp.’ for multiple pages, a dot, space, and the page range.

Now, the last bit of information we need is the place of publication and the publisher. Now, depending on where this book is published, this is going to be different in APA 6th style. As this particular book was published outside of the USA, we have the name of the city or town, which in this case is London, and then a comma and the country – ‘UK’. We then have a full colon and the name of the publisher ‘SAGE’.

If, however, this were published within the United States, we would have the name of the city or town and then a commando the abbreviation of the state within the United States. So let’s say for example this was published in Boston, that would read ‘Boston, MA’ for Massachusetts, ok? So, this information, you’ll be able to find it where we have found this other information that we have used, however just be aware of the difference between whether something is published within the United States or outside of the United States.

Now the last thing we have to do as well, or two more things we have to do actually, is all of our APA 6th references require a hanging indent, and what we mean by that is that the second or any lines thereafter should be indented slightly below the first one. Now, the easiest way to go about this is to select the entire reference and just keep in mind that if you have multiple references in your reference list you can do this in one action by selecting all of them. We’re only going to do this with one reference for today so I’ll select the entire reference, and what I’m going to do now is I’m going to select ‘CTRL’, ‘T’, and that will automatically align it for me.

Now, in terms of APA 6th referencing, one last thing that I have to consider – each of my individual references need to be double-spaced, so the easiest way to do it is once you have selected everything to do your hanging indent with ‘CTRL + T’, keep it selected and then go up to the line spacing which we’ll find here. So when I click on that I can see that these are the options I have, and I want double line spacing so I will select ‘2.0’ and once I’m happy with that I will click that.

So, as you can see we now have all of the information, we have the APA 6th reference with the hanging indent from ‘CTRL + T’ and double-spaced, and that is exactly how it should look.

So, I hope this has been very helpful, and all the best with your referencing.

How to write a reference for a book in APA 6th style

Hello, and welcome to this short video prepared by Academic Skills. Today we’re going to look at how to write a reference for a book using APA 6th referencing style.

Now, in order to do this, we’re going to need the following information, and this is the information we’ll need in the order it that it will appear in the reference. We’re going to need the author’s name or names if there are multiple authors. We’ll need the year of publication, the title of the book, the place of publication and the publishing company.

So if we have a look at an example of a book that we want to reference, as you can see on the cover all we have is the title of the book and the authors’ names here. However, we also need other information which is often found in the first few pages of each book – it will vary from book to book. So, as we open the book and look through the first few pages, we’ll start to see more information arriving.

So, first of all what we need is the name of the authors, so here have the authors’ names here, and then after that we’re also going to need the year of publication, so if we keep looking through the first part of the book we’ll see that the year of publication is around here with the copyright section, so 2007.

What we’ll need next is of course the title of the book, so we can go back to our page previous and see the title is there, and then the next information we’re going to need is the place of publication and the publisher. And we can go back to this page and have a look at the information around here, and as we can see the first address given there is the place of publication. Obviously we don’t need the whole address of this particular UK address here – all we need is the name of the town or city it was published in. In this case it happens to be Abingdon.

The final piece of information we need is the name of the publisher and that is provided at the top there with Routledge.

So, as you can see within the first few pages, all the information that we need is going to be there.

So, let’s see how this information would look in a reference. Now, as you can see we have all the information here and we’re going to put it into the reference in the order it should appear. First of all, with a reference list always note that it should be on a completely new page and it is titled with the bold, centred title ‘References’, so just make sure that is in the middle of the page.

Now, with the reference itself, first of all we’re going to need the surname and then the author’s initials, of both authors. Now, note that the authors appear in the order they appear on the cover of the book. So, in this case Marilyn A. Stone appears first so it’ll be ‘Stone’ comma, ‘M’ full stop, space ‘A’ full stop, and ‘Desmond’ comma ‘J.’ Notice that we use the symbol – the ampersand – instead of the word ‘and’ there.

The next information we need is going to be the year of publication, and that appears in brackets. After that, we have the title of the book itself and notice that this is always in italics. Also notice that it is only the first letter of the first word that is in capitals here.

Now, the final bit of information that I need to complete the reference is the place of publication and the name of the publisher, and this always appears in this format with the place, colon, and then the name of the publisher. However, something different happens according to where the book is published. If, as in this example, the book is published outside of the United States, I will need the name of the town or city followed by a comma, and then the country, so in this case it happens to be Abingdon, UK. I then have a colon and the name of the publisher, which is Routledge. Now, something different happens if it was published within the United States of America. What we will need then is the town or city it was published in, and then the abbreviation for the state instead of the country. So for example, if this were published in Boston, it would be ‘Boston, MA’, which is short for Massachusetts, and then colon and the publishing company. If this were an American edition, ‘Boston, MA’ would appear in the details of the cover, so you would be able to find that information.

Now, we’ve nearly finished here but there are a couple of final touches we have to make. Now first of all, with our APA 6th referencing style we have to have a hanging indent. Now what this means is that each second, third and fourth line if you need them, should be indented in from the first line. Now the easiest way to do this is to select your entire reference, and once I’ve done that I will press ‘CTRL + T’, so that’s ‘T’ for ‘Thomas’, and that gives me the hanging indent automatically. Note that you can do this for all your references at once, so if my reference list is complete with let’s say 10 references, I can select all of those and hit ‘CTRL + T’ to give them all the hanging indent.

There is also one final thing to do in terms of the format of these references – APA 6th references should be double-spaced. So, I’ve already selected my reference and hit ‘CTRL + T’ to get the hanging indent – I’m going to leave it selected and then I’m going to go up to the spacing here at the top of the Word bar, line and paragraph spacing, and I click on that and I select ‘2.0’ for double-spacing. Likewise, this can be done with multiple references.  

So, there you have your book referenced and ready to go. Just, as always with all referencing, it’s worthwhile having a final check over the APA 6th referencing guide just to make every comma, space, full stop, every bracket, anything that should be in italics or shouldn’t be in italics, is as it should be.

I hope that’s been very helpful, and best of luck with all your referencing.

How to use Apostrophes

Hello, and welcome to this short video prepared by Academic Skills, and today we’re going to look at how to use an apostrophe because surprisingly it is one of the most common mistakes that students tend to make.

Now, there are two main ways that we would use an apostrophe in our writing. The first of these is contraction – to shorten words – and the second is possession or ownership of a noun, and we’re going to look at the rules that govern how we use these with singular nouns and plural nouns.

Now, the first way that we can use an apostrophe is when we are using contraction. So, basically, this replaces missing letters, the sort of thing we do when we are speaking. So, is not becomes isn’t, does not becomes doesn’t. In an academic writing sense most students probably won’t need to use this because contractions are not a convention of academic writing.

How apostrophes are used in academic writing, however, is when they relate to possession or ownership of something, and there are separate rules according to whether it is a singular or plural subject. So firstly, if we look at the first rule, when we’re dealing with a singular – one boy with one toy – the apostrophe appears before the –s. So – The boy’s toy is blue. It belongs to the boy.

However, if we look at the second example, we suddenly have two boys and more than one toy. In this case the apostrophe goes after the –s to reflect that there is in fact more than one boy. Also, be aware of the verb ‘to be’ in the grammar there. In the first example there – The boy’s toy IS blue – there is only one of them. In the second example – The boys’ toys ARE blue. So, just those small errors tend to crop up a lot in academic writing.

Now, there are some other rules to be aware of when we are using apostrophes to discuss possession or ownership and, simple rules to follow, if the word in singular and ends in an –s, then add an –’s. So a good example of this is – It was my boss’s fault – so I would add the apostrophe and the –s, even though it ends in two –s. That is the rule to adhere to in that case. If the word is plural and ends in –s, then we only add the apostrophe. So a good example is – My neighbours’ houses are all very nice. So, we have more than one neighbour and we just put the apostrophe after the –s, there is no need for another –s.

We hope that has been helpful and that that will clear up any problems you have with using apostrophes.

Harvard Style

Paraphrasing - How to cite in-text in Harvard style

Hello and welcome to the short video prepared by academic skills and today we are going to look at how to cite an in-text referenced paraphrased using Harvard referencing style.

Now there are two ways to reference a paraphrase in-text using Harvard, and these two ways are Author-focused and the second is information focused and we’re going to have a look at both of these.

Now when we want to reference in an author-focused way, the authors name or names if there is more than one author appear outside of the brackets. Okay, now when using this type of citation it usually happens at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence and we use this style if we want to draw attention to the author of the work we are referencing.

So let’s have a look at some examples of how this would look.

So, first of all, we have the original text written by Smith, there’s our author. And the original text states students often find referencing in the main text of their work a little difficult to understand and do correctly. So those are the author’s words and we want to use that idea by paraphrasing it into our own word and then referencing the author.

So here are three examples of how this might look using author focused style.

In number 1, Smith, in brackets, (2012) argued that in-text citations could be a little confusing. So I have author, year, reporting verb and then my paraphrase of the original idea.

In the second instance you can see that the author has moved a little further into the middle of the sentence.

According to Smith (2012), and then a comma after that, in text citation could be a little confusing.

So now I have the reporting verb, I have the author Smith, the year and then my paraphrase of the idea.

And finally in this last example, we can see that the author has moved into the middle of the sentence. In-text citations can be quiet confusing, as Smith (2012) pointed out in a recent study.

So here I have the paraphrase first, and then the author and the reporting verb.

Now, if I want to change the style and use information focused um referencing, the authors name is inside the brackets this time. Okay, now when we’re using this type of citation it most frequently appears in the middle or at the end of the sentence.  And unlike author focused referencing we use this to draw attention to the actual information itself.

So let’s have a look at how examples of this might look, again we have an original piece of text that we want to use and we have the author so the text states  - Students often find referencing in the main text of their work a little difficult to understand and do correctly.

Okay, so in the first example, you can see that the author appears right at the end of the sentence there. It has been argued that in-text citations could be a little bit confusing or a little confusing – so you can see the paraphrase is there – and then within the brackets we have the author (Smith 2012). It’s important to note at this stage that there is no comma the author and the year. This is an important feature of Harvard style referencing and something not to, ah, make a mess of, okay.

In the second example the reference is the middle of the sentence. I have my paraphrase first, In-text citations can be a little confusing (Smith 2012) both of them in the bracket no comma – and this poses a major challenge for students. So there I have added my own idea to the reference, so when we are looking at these ways of referencing remember that both author focused or information focused each is a suitable way to reference, one is not better than the other, they are both tools to use.

Importantly when we are thinking about paraphrasing we have to remember that want to keep the original meaning of the idea we are using, but we do have to put it into our own words and reference the author to avoid plagiarism. And the other thing we could use both of these methods to achieve is achieve variety. Um if we only use information focused referencing for example, our writing might start to look a bit repetitive. So if you can mix it up with some author focused and some information focused this add variety to your referencing, okay, so anyway that brings us to the end of this video, we hope it has been helpful to you and best of luck with all of your referencing.

Quotations - How to cite in-text in Harvard referencing style

Hello, and welcome to this short video, which today we are going to talk about how to cite in-text using quotations and we’re going to be looking at the Harvard referencing style. Now there are some rules for using direct quotes in Harvard. Firstly, we have to look at the length of the quote. Now if the quote we are going to use is less than 30 words this quote should be included in the main sentence in a text. However, if our quote is 30 words or longer it needs a different format and it should be presented in block format and indented and it should use one size smaller font. So for example, if I was using font 12 in the body of my assignment, I would have to reduce this quote to size 11. It should also use only single spacing.

So we’re going to have a look at how these quotes might appear within our assignment. Now, first of all, if we look at the two styles of referencing we can have the author-focused and information focused. Ah, we’re going to look at author-focused information first. Now when we are doing author -focused referencing, the authors name or names if there are multiple authors is outside of the brackets. Now you’ll usually find this type of citation at the beginning or perhaps in the middle of the sentence. And the reason we choose to use an author-focused is because we want to draw attention to that particular author by making them the head of the sentence. So, if we look at some examples of how a short quote, i.e. under 30 words would look in the author focused style, we can see these three clear examples. Now, at the top of the page there you have the original text, which in this case is written by Jones, and there it is word for word. As we’re quoting we are going to take that word-for-word - Students often find getting the reference list exactly correct quite difficult.

So, the first example, gives us an author first and then a reporting verb and then the entire quote in, notice this is single quotation marks. So, Jones then in brackets, 2017, now I’ll need a comma there and a p, a space then a p, full stop a space and then the page number because that’s what that denotes and we need to actually include the page number when quoting a direct quote. Okay, so Jones outside of the brackets, then my brackets including the year and the page number, then my reporting verb – argues that – and then the quote. And I finish it with a full stop outside of the last quotations mark.

My second option, is somewhat similar. However, I have put the reporting verb before the author in this case. So, According to Jones- and then again to the year and the page number in bracket, comma, then the quote within single quotation marks again.

My final option, is to put the author slightly further back in the sentence there - Many students experience great difficulty in getting the reference list exactly correct – so that’s the part of the quote that I have chosen to use there, and now the author comes after that – Jones then in brackets 2017 page 7 pointed out in a recent study. So my reporting verb comes after the author there

Now that last examples show us that we don’t need to necessarily take every word of a quote that we want to use. In the first two examples we’ve used every part of it, from students through to difficult. In this third example we’ve used our own sort of words to express the idea and then we’ve taken the words - getting the reference list exactly correct – as the exact words from the quote.

So just a few options about how an author focused example would work using short quotes.

Now, as we mentioned earlier, something different happens when we are dealing with longer quotes. And again with longer quotes we mean by over 30 words.  Now again we have an example with the original text and in this case the authors are McRudden and Ross.

Okay, so similar to the second example on the previous slide we’ve used the reporting verb first, - According to McRudden and Ross, now notice that as these two authors are outside of the brackets we’re using the actual word and A N D, and not the symbol. So according to McRudden and Ross – then in brackets – the year comma, space p dot, space - page number. So very similar to what we had before – state.  Now this is where something difference happens, um that quote would be far too long to include within a body of text its over 30.

So I have a colon, then I have a space. Then what I’ve done is I have indented the quote that I am using, which is what I require for direct quotes. In this case, however, we don’t use any quotation marks it has been indented in to a block, as you can see there. So, there are no quotation marks and then I put, this is what the original text said, and I put that straight down in a block quote, indented the quote that I am using starting with three dots and then that whole block of text is as you can see one font size smaller and the line spacing is single.

So just be mindful of the length of your quotes and if they are over 30 words, this is something that you are going to have to do.

Now, moving on to the second style of quotation that we might use, um instead of author-focused, were going to look at some examples of information-focused. Okay

Now in these types of citations the authors name or names appear inside the brackets with the year and the page number. Now you’d usually find this type of citation in the middle or end of the sentence and the reason we have this type citation too is that we want to draw attention to the actual information itself rather than the author. So, again the information appears at the head of the sentence and attracts our focus.

So again let’s have a look at some example of how this might look. So, first of all we’ll start off with the short quotations, the under 30 words.

So, again here have the same original text by Jones. So you can see something different has happened this time from our previous example

It has been argued that – and now I have the direct quote – ‘students often etc. etc. etc.’ and then Jones the year comma space page dot space seven closed brackets full stop.

Okay, so the main difference here is that not only does the author appear at the end, but this author is now included within the year and the page number within the reference, okay. So that makes us focus more on this information that students often find it. So that how it would look like with a short quote.

Um if we look at the same type of referencing in a long quote, again over 30 words, we would do something along the same lines. So instead of mention the author in this first part…It is widely known that, what we’ve done instead, instead of it saying McRudden and Ross show that etc... We don’t mention the authors at this points. So, it is widely known that, it can be argued that, it can be seen that. But again, when I’m ready for the quote, the colons appear, the actual quote become indented and starts with three dots. Again notice that the font is one size smaller than the font I am using in the body of my text, and again you can see that the authors have appeared within the brackets. So we have both authors the year and the page number.

Also interesting to note, if you think back to our previous example of the long quote, McRudden and Ross appeared outside of the brackets and we used the actual word and A N D. Please take special note that once more than one author appears within the brackets the symbol is used instead of the word and. This is an important referencing convention.

So, good luck with all of your referencing, we hope that’s been helpful with in terms of referencing direct quotes both long and short in the Harvard style. So, good luck with all of your referencing and we’ll see you next time.

How to write a reference for journal article: Harvard referencing style

Hello, and welcome to this short video on how to write a reference for a journal article in Harvard style.

Now, to write this type of reference, we’ll need to know a few pieces of information. We’ll need the author name or names, the year of publication, the title of the article and of the journal, the volume number, the issue number if there is one given, the page range and you MAY need a DOI, only if required by your lecturer.

OK, so let’s have a look at an example. What we’re looking at here is the first page of a journal article. Now, we don’t actually need to go down any further than the first page because all the information that I pointed out to you just a second ago we can find on this first page. So let’s go through and highlight those things that we need in the order that we need them.

First of all, we need the author names and here we can see three different author names. The first one has three initials, or three names before their family name which means they will have three initials, and then the two other authors.

The next thing we need after that is the year of publication, which is up there.

Then we’ll need the title of the article – ‘Which features make illustrations in multimedia learning interesting?’.

We need to know the title of the journal and this particular one is called ‘Educational Psychology’.

Then we need the volume number, the issue number, we need the page range as well, and that is all the information that we need.

Now, in this particular journal, you can see obviously that it is all located at the top of the page. Sometimes it’s not at the top, sometimes it’s at the bottom, sometimes it’s in the centre of the top, sometimes centre of the bottom. It IS on the first page regardless of what journal you’re looking at, so that’s something just to keep in mind.

Ok, so let’s have a look at how all that information can be put into a reference. So what I’ve done is I’ve just written all those different pieces of information in here so that we can see them on the same page, but what we’re really interested in is this one here, which is the actual reference.

Now for a Harvard reference you start your reference list on a new page, and then you have the centred title ‘References’.  

Then we have our three authors. You can see there are three family names here followed by their initials. Now, we already pointed out the first author has three initials, but the other two just have one. How many initials authors have is totally up to them – whatever they choose, you need to put that in the reference.

Next is the year of publication, followed by the title of the article and you’ll notice that it is inside single quotation marks. Then we’ve got the title of the journal in italics with capital letters for all main words. Then, volume and issue number and we have to use ‘vol. 36’ and ‘no. 9’, and then the page range which we need to use ‘pp.’ before that.

Now, just pay attention to all the bits and pieces that you see in a reference, and you’ll see in Harvard there are lots of commas all the way along. These are all important and are part of the referencing style so if you miss them, you’ve made a mistake. But just to make sure you get all those things right, you can always come back to this video or you can go to the Harvard referencing LibGuide to see some other examples there.

So, I hope that’s been helpful, and good luck with all of your study.

How to write a reference for a website: Harvard referencing style

Hello, and welcome to this short video prepared by Academic Skills, and today we’re going to look at how to write a reference for a website using Harvard referencing style.

Now, in order to write our reference, we’re going to need the following information in the following order. First of all, we’re going to need the author’s name – just be aware this may be the name of a person or an organisation. Secondly, we’re going to need the year of publication. After that, we’re going to need we’re going to need the title of the specific document if there is one. We’re also going to need the publisher if one appears, and then we’re going to need the date that we actually viewed the article online, which would be today’s date. And finally, we’re going to need to copy in the URL of the website that we are accessing it.

So, let’s have a look at a website that we want to use in our assignment. Now, first of all we’re going to need to find the name of the author. Now, in this case we can find it not far from the top and in this case it’s a person – Samantha Morris. Just be aware that sometimes this may the name of an organisation.

Next, we’re going to need the year of publication. If we can’t find it at the top, it’s always a good idea to look down towards the bottom of the website where there is a lot of information, and here if we look around we’ll find that it is in fact produced in 2017. So that is the year that we will use.

Next, we’re going to need the title of the specific document, which should appear at the top, and here we have it – ‘Gold Coast’s best camping spots’.

Next, we’re going to try and find the publisher if this is applicable. We can look around the top, but if we don’t find it there again it is probably best practice to look towards the bottom and see if there is a publisher listed there, and as you can see we have ‘Destination Gold Coast’ as the publishers.

The next piece of information we need is the date that we viewed the article, so we would write in today’s date for that particular piece of information.

And finally, in the top browsing bar we will copy the full URL of the website to copy into our referencing list.

So, now that we have that information we’ve just gathered it into this list so that we can see where it is and which order that we will use it. So, first of all we’ll need the author’s name – in this case it was Samantha Morris, so we will take the author’s surname and the initial, so that will be ‘Morris, S’.

Next comes the year of publication, ‘2017’. After a comma we will go on to the title of the web page, and notice that this is in italics. The other thing to notice is that only the first letter of the sentence and any proper nouns such as Gold Coast are in capitals here.

After a comma we have the name of the publisher, in this case ‘Destination Gold Coast’, and finally or next, nearly finally, we have the date of our access, and we write it in this format – always ‘viewed’, always the number of the day, the full name of the month, and the year – no punctuation.

After a comma, our last piece of information is the URL copied. Just notice that we have encased it in those brackets as well. And now our reference is ready to go, we have a full stop at the end of course.

Also remember all of our reference lists start on a new page and start with the bold, centred title ‘References’.

We hope this has been very useful, and good luck with all of your referencing.

How to write a reference for an online newspaper article using Harvard referencing style

Hello. Welcome to this short video prepared by Academic Skills, and today we’re going to look at how to write a reference for an online newspaper article using Harvard referencing style.

Now, in order to write our reference, we’re going to need the following pieces of information. Firstly, we’re going to need the name of the author or names of the authors if it is indeed multiple authors. We’re also going to need the year of publication. We’re going to need the title of the article itself, and we’re also going to need the name of the newspaper or news website that it comes from. We’ll also need the date of publication. We’ll also need the date that we actually looked at the article online, and finally we’ll need the URL of the website.

Now, let’s select an article that we’re going to use in our assignment, and this is how we’re going to reference this. As you can see this one happens to be taken from The Guardian online, the Australia edition.

Now, first of all, we need to find the author’s name, and the author’s name can be found down the side here – Katherine Murphy is the author here. Just be aware that it mentions Josh Frydenberg up here, but that is a politician that is being referred to in the title as you can see, so just be careful when selecting the author.

Now, the next piece of information we need is the year of publication, and there it is below the author’s name – 2017.

Next, we’re going to need the full title of the article and this is where it appears.

After that, we’re going to need the name of the newspaper or news site. As said previously, this is taken from The Guardian, so there is that title there, and next we need the actual date of publication, and here we have it – the 12th of July.

Now, we also have to add the information when we viewed this, so we would take a note of today’s date and include that in our reference, and finally we will copy the whole URL from the bar above so that will take us directly to that article when we need to access it.

So, in order to construct our reference we’ve put that information that we need in this list here so that we can then look at how we would put this together in a reference, ok?

Now, the first thing to note is that when we are writing our reference list, it needs to be on a new page with the centred heading ‘References’ in bold, ok?

Now, the information that we require is going to appear in the order that comes in the reference. So first of all, we need the author’s name and in this case it’s Katherine Murphy, so we lead with the surname of the author – Murphy – a comma, and then just a ‘K’, just the initial. If it was Katherine Jane Murphy, that would read ‘KJ’.

So, we have the name of the author. Next we have the year of publication – notice there is no punctuation between the initial and the year – then we have a comma and we have the title of the online article that we’re using in inverted commas, single inverted commas there, ok?

Next, after a comma we have the title of the newspaper and please note that this title, the title of the newspaper itself, is in italics.

Next, we have the date of publication, so this is the date that the newspaper article appeared, which was the 12th of July, and finally we also have the date that we accessed it, and we do this by writing ‘viewed’ and the date with the day, month and year. After that we have a comma and then we add the URL of the website enclosed in those brackets.

So, I hope that has been very helpful, and best of luck with all of your referencing.

How to write a reference for a chapter in an edited book in Harvard referencing style

Hello, and welcome to this video on how to write a reference for a chapter in an edited book in Harvard referencing style.

To do this you’ll need some important pieces of information. You’ll need to know the chapter author name or names, the year of publication, the title of the chapter, the name or names of the editor or editors of the book. You’ll then need the title of the whole book in which the chapter appears. Then you’ll need the publishing company, the place of publication, and the page range, and you’ll need all this information in this specific order.

Ok, so let’s have a look at an example of an actual edited book. So this is one that we have in PDF form, so just imagine that it’s an actual book that you’re using, and as you can see on the front cover it’s called ‘Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis’ and there are two names there as well. At the moment it’s hard to tell if this is an edited book or whether these two have written the whole book, but as we go through the next pages, we will be able to see that it is an edited book. So, here’s the front cover, but let’s go and have a look at the information that we actually need.

Now, I’m just scrolling through the first pages of this book now, and we’ll find all that information that we need on these pages. So, there we have the title again and we can see now that it is an edited book by these two editors. So more information there and then we get to the Table of Contents, and this is where we’re going to look first.

Now, from this particular book, the chapter that we’ve used is Chapter 6. So, the first bit of information we need is that author’s name, which is Norman Fairclough.

The next thing we need to know as we saw before is the year of publication, so I’m just going back here to the copyright page, and you’ll find that information on this page.

The next thing we need is the title of the chapter, so back to the Table of Contents and here is the title – ‘Critical discourse analysis as a method in social scientific research’.

After that we need to know the names of the editors, and here they are – Ruth Wodak and Michael Meyer.

We also need the title of the whole book, which we saw on the front cover and we can see again here – ‘Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis’.

Now, the next thing we need is the publishing company and we can usually see that on this page here – SAGE Publications – or the copyright page so we can see that here as well, and just ‘SAGE’ is enough to write for that.

We need the place of publication, and in this case we’ve got three different places that it’s been published, so we’re just going to take the first one which is ‘London’.

OK, and the last thing we need, if we come back once again to our Table of Contents, we need the page range. So that means the first page up to the last page of the chapter that we used. So, as you can see our chapter starts on page 121. The next chapter starts on page 139, and that means that the page range finishes on page 138, so 121 to 138.

And that’s all the information that we need, and as you can see we’ve found it all in the first few pages of this book.

Now, let’s see what this looks like in an actual reference. So what I’ve done here is I’ve listed the information that we just identified in the actual book so we can use it in our reference.

Now, when you start writing your reference list, just remember that you need to have a new page – here we don’t have a new page because it’s just an example but in your essay or your report you will start your reference list on a new page with a bold, centred heading ‘References’, like this. Then we start making our reference.

So, we start with the chapter author name, so we’ve got family name, comma, first initial, and then the year of publication, and then after another comma we have the title of the chapter in single quotation marks followed by a comma, and then ‘In R Wodak & M Meyer’ and in brackets ‘(eds.)’, so these are the editors and you’ll notice here that something interesting has happened with the way that their names are presented. So when we have a chapter in an edited book, the editors’ names have the initial first followed by their family name, so you can see for example that ‘R Wodak’ is in a different order to ‘Fairclough, N’, so that’s an important thing to keep in mind.

Then another comma, and then in italics with only the first word capitalised, we have the title of the book, comma, publishing company, London, and finally, after another comma, ‘pp.’, which indicates page range, and then we put that page range of 121-138 that we identified.

So, I hope that’s been very helpful for you and that now you are well equipped to reference a chapter in an edited book in Harvard referencing style. Best of luck.

How to write a reference for a book in Harvard referencing style

Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video prepared by Academic Skills on how to write a reference for a book using Harvard referencing style. Now, to do this we’ll need a few pieces of information, and we’ll need this information in this order.

First, we’ll need the author name or names if it’s multiple authors. Then we’ll need the year of publication, the title of the book, the edition number if there’s actually more than one edition, the publishing company, and then the place of publication.

OK, let’s have a look at an example of a book that we actually have in PDF form which is this one here – ‘An Introduction to Sociolinguistics’ – so let’s just imagine that this is an actual physical book we can hold in our hands because it’ll serve our purposes. So, we can see that on the front cover there are two authors, seventh edition, and we can also see the publisher’s name at the bottom. Now, all that information that I just pointed out that we need, we can find somewhere on the first few pages, and as I, I’m just sort of scrolling back and forth through what would be the first few actual paper pages of a physical book.

Now, of course on the cover we can see the authors and the title and so on look just like this, but I’m just going to highlight these in the order that we need them here. So, the first thing we need are the author names – we have two. After that, on a page that looks like this, which is the copyright page, we can find the year of publication. Now, in this case it’s right up the top – 2015 – it’s not always the very first line but it’s somewhere in the first part of a page like this, but this is the page that you need to come to find that year of publication. Title of the book, here it is. The next thing we need is the edition number if there is one mentioned and this one is the seventh edition so there it is. The next thing we need is the publishing company and that is, in this case, you can see it at the bottom of this page – Wiley Blackwell – for some reason I am not able to highlight this yellow, but ‘Wiley Blackwell’ at the bottom of this page is what we need for the publishing company, and then for the place of publication, come back to this copyright page and what we’re looking for, you can see there are some locations listed here under ‘Editorial Offices’, we don’t need to put all of those so we’ll just take the first one. Now all you need is the name of the town or city. In this case it is Malden, which is in Massachusetts in the USA.

OK, so let’s see how all this information will look in an actual reference. What I’ve done here is I’ve just listed the information that we have just found in the book, in the same order so we can see it as we put it into our reference.

Alright, now first of all, always remember that with a Harvard reference list you need to start with the bold, centred heading ‘References’ on a new page. I haven’t started a new page here because this is just an example, but in your essay or report or whatever assignment you’re doing, please start a new page even if it is just one reference.

Alright, then we have our author names – here they are. Now, we always start with our family name, comma, then initial, and we’ve done that here so the second author has two initials – JM. Now, no punctuation, then we have the year of publication, and then after a comma we have the title of the book. Now notice that the title of the book is in italics and only the first word is in capitals. That is what is required in Harvard style. The only words that would be capitalised would be any proper nouns such as names, places and things like that. Then we put our edition number after a comma like this, and after another comma, the publisher name, and then after a final comma we put the place of publication and we end the reference with a full stop.

So there you have it – that’s how you construct your reference for a book using Harvard referencing style. I hope this has been helpful for you and good luck with all of your studies.

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