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Learning Zone videos

How-to referencing examples on this page include APA 7th and Harvard styles.

* Please check with your Unit Assessor for the correct referencing requirements to use in your course or unit.

Learning Zone Workshops are also recorded and available here.

APA 7th Edition referencing styles

Transition to referencing with APA 7th style (10:30)

Hello and welcome to this short video prepared by the Learning Experience Team. Today, we’re going to look at some of the changes in the new 7th edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual.

In this video, we’ll be looking at a number of basic elements of APA Style. We’ll take a look at the guidelines for formatting student papers, including the new standards for heading styles and tables and figures. We’ll also learn about writing using bias-free, gender-neutral language. Then, we’ll take a look at the guidelines for in-text references and reference lists.

In APA 7th edition, there are some minor changes to the presentation requirements for student papers.

First, unless instructed otherwise by your lecturer, assignments no longer include a running head. This means that for student papers, your title page should only include the page number 1 in the top, right-hand corner of the page.

Also, the title of your assignment should be centred and bold, and placed three to four double-spaced lines down from the top of the page. Notice how the other elements of the title page are centred on the page.

In APA 7th edition, there are more fonts to choose from. The most important thing is that fonts should be easy to read for all users.

Make sure that whatever font you choose, you use that same font throughout your assignment.

Headings are important because they help you logically organise your thoughts and structure your paper. They also help readers find key points and track the development of your arguments” (APA, 2020).

As you can see from this table, all headings are now in bold and title case. Note that for heading levels 1-3, the text begins indented as a new paragraph. For heading levels 4 and 5, the text begins on the same line as the heading.

If you’re writing an essay, do not begin with an “Introduction” heading. Because the first paragraph of your paper is considered introductory, the heading is not needed.

Also, note that all section labels are now in bold, so that means your “Abstract” and “References” headings will now be in BOLD.

In APA 7, tables and figures are now formatted in the same way. Each table and figure should be given a title that is clear and explanatory, and aligned to the left margin (APA, 2020).

1. You will see from this figure that the heading “Figure” and the number “1” are BOLD. The applies to tables too.

2. You can see also that the title is in title case and italics, just like tables.

3. Figures also now have notes (instead of a caption) =- THIS ALSO IS formatted in the same way as Tables.

APA seventh edition has updated their guidelines for writing about all people with inclusivity and respect. Before the seventh edition, people were limited to the use of “she” and “he” when referring to others in academic writing, for example, ‘Each student should complete his or her assignment by the due date’.

However, this sentence makes assumptions about the gender of students which may not necessarily be accurate.

A more inclusive, gender-neutral way of writing about people uses the singular “they”, e.g., ‘Each student should complete their essay by the due date’.

Using the singular “they” was once frowned on in academic writing, but it is now endorsed as part of APA Style because “it is inclusive of all people and helps writers avoid making assumptions about gender” (APA, 2020).

The singular “they” should be used in two main instances:

When referring to a generic person whose gender is unknown or irrelevant to the context; and
When referring to a specific, known person who uses “they” as their pronoun (Lee, 2019).

If you are writing about a specific, known person, always use that person’s pronoun. It might be “he”, “she”, “they” – if you’re unsure, ask them what designation they prefer and use that language (APA, 2020).

If a person uses “she” or “he”, you must use that pronoun. Do not use “they”. Similarly, if a person uses “they”, do not use “he” or “she” (Lee, 2019).

Here are some examples of bias-free language.

When you are writing about people, it is important to talk them with respect. And its a good idea to use the language that people use to describe themselves. In general, descriptive phrases are preferred over using adjectives as nouns to describe people. When reporting age, precise age ranges are preferred over broad, open-ended definitions (APA, 2020).

The APA’s guidelines for using bias-free language cover a range of individual characteristics, such as age, disability, gender, racial and ethnic identity, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status. Take a look at the online resources listed at the end of this video and do your own research to make sure your academic writing is always clear, precise, and respectful. 

In APA 7th edition, guidelines for in-text citations have been simplified. The in-text citation for a work with three or more authors has now been shortened to include only the first author’s name and “et al.”, even in the first citation.

There are also changes to the number of authors that are included in a reference entry. Previously, you were expected to list up to 7 authors in your reference list.

When using APA 7 style, you must provide all the surnames and initials for up to 20 authors in the reference list.

When there are up to 20 authors, use an ampersand before the last author’s name.

When citing works by 21 or more authors, you must include the first 19 authors, then insert an ellipsis (set of dots) before the last author’s name.

When citing books in your reference list, provide the author, year of publication, title and publisher of the book. Do not include the publisher location.

If the book includes a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.

In cases where the book’s author and publisher are an exact match, the publisher is also omitted.

Most journal articles and books have a DOI. A DOI, or Digital Object Identifier, is a unique link that makes it easier for readers to retrieve online content (APA, 2020).

You should include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, even if you didn’t use the online version.

To format your reference list correctly in APA 7, present DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks.

Also remember that:

Because a hyperlink links readers directly to the article, do not include the words “Retrieved from” before the DOI.

The formatting of DOIs has changed over time. So remember to change all DOIs into the new, preferred format for all reference entries.

Also, do not add line breaks manually, and don’t add a full stop after the DOI because this could interfere with the link’s functionality (APA, 2020).

The link should live be if the work is to be published or read online.

URLs are also no longer preceded by “Retrieved from”. The words “Retrieved from” are only used when a retrieval date is needed (e.g., if you were citing a Census report where content changes frequently over time).

eBooks are now treated the same as print books. If the book includes a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.

If an online work does not have a DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the publisher name. Don’t include the publisher location.

You would only include a URL if the online work doesn’t have a DOI and is not from an academic research database.

Also, when citing ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g., Kindle) is no longer included in the reference.

Also, make sure you always use the most specific date possible for webpages.

If a journal uses article numbers, include the word “Article” before the number instead of the page range.

This how-to video has highlighted just some of the important changes that students will need to know when writing in APA 7th style.

There are a lot of other changes too. For more information about APA Style, speak with your SCU librarians – they will be able to help you. There are also great online resources from the APA website (listed here).

We hope you’ve found this video helpful, but if you have more questions, ask your SCU librarian or check out the great online resources in the Student Learning Zone, on the university website.

 

Introduction to referencing (5:31)

hello and welcome to an introductory video on referencing for academic writing so what exactly is referencing referencing is a method used to acknowledge when ideas information data words images or examples from the work of others are included in your academic writing referencing is one of the most important ways that students practice academic Integrity when writing at University academic Integrity is about applying the belief that honesty is at the core of exemplary scholarship so why is it important to reference firstly practicing academic Integrity is all about acknowledging when we use the work of others and only taking credit for work we create ourselves this is important to allow others to find sources of evidence a build upon the academic knowledge you have produced thirdly it's about acknowledging and showing respect it's also about validity and credibility so good referencing strengthens your writing and finally often at University we are expected to use certain sources for particular pieces of assessment by referencing correctly you prove that you have used these sources and also show your marker the scope of your research so what is involved in referencing well whenever you synthesize or put together information from a number of sources and incorporate it with your own ideas you must acknowledge where all of these ideas came from the most common writing types that require referencing are paraphrasing or stating an idea in your own words summarizing and direct quotations using the exact words of another person secondly it's very important that you use the appropriate style of format to acknowledge the work of others this is achieved in two different ways within academic writing in in-text citations which are found within the paragraphs and in real reference list so what does referencing look like here's a couple of examples of index referencing where the author of the original ideas is acknowledged within the paragraphs it's optional whether you use this information prominent Style where the author's name is included in the citation brackets or this author prominent Style where the author's name is incorporated into the sentence in a grammatically correct manner it's best to use a combination of both of these Styles in your in-text citations

so when is it necessary to use citations in your academic writing you must reference every time you use evidence to support your arguments and claims that have come from the literature you have sourced this includes tables statistics and images definitions of terms or concepts quoting summarizing and paraphrasing so what's involved in the process there are roughly five steps in producing accurate referencing first you need to identify the style required for your school or unit then identify the type of source that you are using third identify and record the required elements from the source and you'll find these required elements in your guides for each Style and then it's about entering the required referencing into your assignment both in text and in the reference list and finishing with some editing and double checking this means doing a cross check to ensure that all of your sources cited in your writing are in the references and vice versa all of the sources included in your references have been cited in text I'll show you quickly where to find the SE referencing guides if you go to the library webpage scroll to the bottom to find the quick links you can access the referencing guides through these two links further resources are available on the Student Learning Zone web page to access the Student Learning Zone click on current students then student learning Zoom and it will bring you to this home page from here you can access how-to videos on APA and Harvard referencing you can access the quick guides on summarizing and paraphrasing using quotations and other aspects of academic integrity and avoiding plagiarism there are also workshops available throughout the session and recordings of previous workshops on avoiding plagiarism and academic writing through the student appointments link you can use the ask a question function to ask a learning coach about referencing or submit your assignment for review you can also book an appointment to speak directly with a learning coach who can provide advice on referencing an academic integrity you can also speak directly with the librarian either on campus or through the library chat function if you click on this button from the library webpage this chat window opens up from here you can ask the librarian for help thank you for watching all the best with your studies and again please contact the Student Learning Zone or the library if you require any further information on referencing

How to reference a chapter in a book in APA 7th style (6:37)

Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video.
Today we are going to talk about how to write a reference for a chapter in a book using APA 7th style. 
As you may know, in APA7th style, ebooks are treated the same as print books – and to create your reference entry correctly, you’ll need the following elements: 
“….the publisher name plus any applicable DOI or URL” 
Notice that a publisher location is not included in APA 7th style. 
So let’s take a look at what a reference entry for a chapter in a book looks like in APA 7th style. 
So, here’s an example of the basic format for referencing a chapter in an edited book. 
You can see that the first element is the chapter author names. Note that the names are inverted so that the last name comes first, followed by a comma and then the initials. Notice that there is a space between the initials and these are punctuated with a full stop. But notice that after the first author’s initial we have a full stop and a comma before the ampersand. The next element is the year of publication which is contained in round brackets and punctuated with a full stop. 
Next, we have the title of the chapter. Notice that the title is in normal font, it is not italicised, and it’s in sentence case (which means that only the first letter of the first word is capitalised). And the chapter name ends with a full stop. 
Now, the next element is the names of the editors. Here, we write the word “In” followed by the editor names. Notice that the editor names are not inverted, so the editors’ initials comes before their last name. The editor name is followed by an abbreviation of the word “Editors” which we can see has a capitalised “E” and a lower case “ds”. This information is punctuated with a full stop and contained in round brackets, which is followed immediately by a comma. 
Next, we have the title of the whole book, which we can see is in italics. Now after the title, in round brackets, we have any edition information as well as the page range of the chapter. You can see that the edition information and the page rage is separated by a comma, and that the page rage is denoted by pp.
Then the next element is the name of the publisher, followed by a full stop, followed by the DOI or URL. Note that we don’t put a full stop after the DOI or URL.
So, here’s an example of a reference for a book. 
You can see that the chapter author names are inverted, and that the initials are punctuated with a full stop. Notice the comma separating first author’s initial from the ampersand. The next element is the year of publication which is contained in round brackets and punctuated with a full stop.
Next, we have the title of the chapter. Notice that the title is in normal font and in sentence case and punctuated with a full stop. 
Now, the next element is the name of the editor. We can see that the editor’s initial comes before the last name along with the word “In” (capitalised). The editor name is followed by an abbreviation of the word “Editor” which we can see has a capitalised “E”, a lower case “d”, and a full stop, which is contained within round brackets. This is followed by a comma. 
Next, we have the title of the whole book, which we can see is in italics, and the page range which is contained in round brackets. Then the last element is the name of the publisher, followed by a full stop. We would include a DOI here if one was available. 
Now, this book is from an academic research database, so we can end the reference after the publisher name; we don’t include the publisher location. But if we were citing a book that did not have a DOI and was not from an academic research database, then we would include a URL. 
And just remember when constructing your reference list, the heading “references” should be in the centre and in bold. Your entries should be in alphabetical order based on the author surnames. Your entries should be doubled spaced, without extra spacing between, and should have a hanging indent. Lastly, make sure all works cited in-text are in your list and all entries in your list are cited in-text.
So now you now how to reference a chapter in a book in APA 7th style. If you want to know more about referencing, have a look at SCU’s online referencing guides – you can find a link to those guides on the library’s homepage – or ask your friendly Learning Experience Team – and good luck with your referencing!

Paraphrasing, citing in-text APA 7th style (4:13)

Hello and welcome to this short video on how to cite in-text by paraphrasing in APA 7th referencing style. This video will cover the methods used to paraphrase. examples of these and some final points to remember. Now there are two ways if we want to reference a paraphrase in text using APA 7th referencing style. These are author focused and information focused and we're going to look at both of these today. Firstly if we look at author focused what happens is the author's name or names if there are multiple authors appear outside of the brackets usually in these types of citations the author will appear at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence and we use this method if we want to draw particular attention to the author that we have referenced. Let's have a look at some examples. Here is the original text written by Smith and we can see it says; Students often find referencing in the main text of their work a little difficult to understand and do correctly. So we want to use that idea but obviously we have to paraphrase it into our own words and then reference Smith. So the first method shows that the author starts the sentence Smith in brackets (2012) argued that in-text citations could be a little confusing. That is one way to achieve that paraphrase the second example we have added the reporting verb first so according to Smith (2012), in brackets again and then a comma in-text citations could be a little confusing. And now the final example has moved the author further into the middle of the sentence; In-text citations can be quite confusing as Smith (2012) pointed out in a recent study. So all three of these are equally valid but. Just notice that Smith appears outside of the brackets in each case. Now if we move on to information focus style paraphrasing in this case the author's name or names appear inside the brackets this type of citation will often appear in the middle or at the end of the sentence and unlike author focus referencing this is what we use if we want to draw attention to the actual information itself. So here are some examples of how we would use information focus referencing again we have the original text (written by Smith) Students often find referencing in the main text of their work a little difficult to understand and do correctly. So that's the idea we want to use so we need to paraphrase it and reference Smith so in the first example you can see that the author now appears at the end of the reference; It has been argued that in-text citations could be a little confusing (Smith, 2012). An important feature of APA 7th referencing is that the comma always appears between the author or authors and the year so it's important not to leave that small detail out. A second example shows the author appearing in the middle of the sentence in-text citations can be a little confusing. There's the paraphrase (Smith, 2012), in brackets and then we have added our own comment to that and this poses a major challenge for students. So if the author and the information prominent are suitable methods to paraphrase. The important thing to remember with paraphrasing however as we've seen in those examples is keeping the original meaning of the idea and words we want to use but putting them into our own words. That is the crucial point, that is how we avoid plagiarism. The other thing to remember now that we have both of these styles is that using a combination of these can also help vary your writing. So instead of just using one author first or information first and having repetitive writing, try mixing it up a little to give it that variety. And that will bring us to the end of this video. We hope that it's been helpful to you and good luck with all of your referencing.

Referencing websites in APA 7th style (4:11)

Hello and welcome to this short video on how to reference websites in APA 7th.

To do this we'll need some specific pieces of information.

We'll need the author or authors this can be an individual or it can be an organization referred to as a group author. Next we'll need the date of publication or the latest update we'll need the title of the website and the title of the webpage or document found on the web page.

The format for the reference will differ slightly depending on whether it's individual or a group author. This format is found on the APA 7th libguide. Just note the url link should be live so the reader can click on it and go directly to the page and we want to use the most specific date possible for our reference entries.

So let's have a look at some examples.

First, we'll look at a web page with an individual author then we'll look at a web page with a group author. So here we have a generic web page, the individual who authored this page is here and the date of publication is below that. The title of the page is here nice and clearly and the title of the website is here. Lastly the url can be found here.

So, I've compiled that information.

The next step is to match the APA 7th formatting. So, this is the formatting from the APA 7th libguide and as you can see this entry matches it perfectly. We have the author's surname, Darling, a comma followed by the first initial b and a full stop. Next we have the year of publication in brackets and remember to use the most specific date which is June 1st 2020. Followed by another full stop.

Next the webpage title is in italics with another full stop followed by the website title, Urban List and another full stop before the url. So, let's have a look at a group author example now.

Here is a web page by the world health organization because there is no individual author listed we are going to use the group author which is usually found here.

You can see the date of publication here and the title of the web page.

Lastly we have the url here so again I've compiled this information now let's have a look at the libguide formatting.

So, this again is straight from your libguide and this is what the entry looks like when you match that formatting as you can see we have the group author world health organization full stop the specific date of publication or last update in brackets and another full stop. We have the title in italics followed by a full stop and because the name of the website is the same as the group name we don't need to include that here. Lastly because this information may change as the world health organization undertakes more research. I've included the retrieval date in the form of retrieved August 31st 2020 from and the url.

So that's what the entry looks like when you follow the APA 7 format.

Now let's look at what that looks like in the reference list. Here are our two entries in alphabetical order, double spacing with a hanging indent. Note you can use ctrl t or command t to quickly get the hanging indent.

Lastly as a reminder make sure your heading references is centred and bold, make sure your entries are in alphabetical order by the surname, use double spacing without adding any extra spaces between entries and don't forget to check and make sure you've included all the sources cited in text.

So we hope this video has been useful. Happy referencing.

Quotations, citing in-text APA 7th (5:29)

Hello and welcome to this short video on how to cite in text using direct quotations in APA 7th referencing style.

This video will cover the methods used to quote in text some examples of these and some final points to remember. The rules for quoting revolve around the length of the quote for quotes less than 40 words they should be included in the main sentence in the text. However if your quote is more than 40 words they should be presented in block format and indented without quotation marks.

We'll look at examples of both of these. So firstly we have the author focus style of direct quotes Here the author's name or names if there are multiple authors appear outside of the brackets Usually this type of citation occurs at the beginning or the middle of the sentence and we use it if we want to draw particular attention to the author we are using.

So here are some examples of this using a short quote our original text written by Jones is that students often find getting the reference list exactly correct quite difficult.

We're going to use that quote word for word but in three examples just have a look at the different position of the author's name. In the first one Jones is outside of the brackets as we said then 2017 a comma and the p there represents page number and we need a page number when we are direct quoting in APA 7 style.

In the second one you can see something has changed the reporting verb in this case according to comes before the author and then the quote occurs and finally we have an introduction to the idea. Many students experience great difficulty in. And then using the part of the quote that we want. As Jones 2017 page seven pointed out in a recent study. These are all variations of doing the same thing with direct quotes.

Now let's have a look at an author focused example with a longer quote so as we said earlier if a direct quote is for is longer than 40 words it has to be presented in a different style. We have the original text this time written by two authors now if we look at the quote you can see that it has been presented in a different way.

So according to McRudden and Ross notice that both the authors appear outside of the brackets and notice that we use the actual word and a and d to refer to them.

Then we have the brackets 2017 and the page number which is what is required for direct quotes. In this case however we don't use any quotation marks it has been indented into a block as you can see there. Now if I move away from author focused I can also introduce a quote with information focus in this case the author's name or names appear inside the brackets. We usually find this type of quotation in the middle or end of the sentence and we use it when we want to draw attention to the actual information itself rather than the author.

So an example might look like this. Again here is the original short text which i'll use in my quote that is under 40 words students often find getting the reference list exactly correct quite difficult.

Okay so this is how it might look it has been argued that and now I have the direct quote. Students often find getting the references exactly correct quite difficult followed by the citation in brackets Jones comma 2017 comma p.7 for page seven. A couple of things to notice here. Notice that it's a double quotation mark that we use in APA 7 style which is important to remember.

The other thing to notice is that the author is inside the brackets with the year this time and notice that there is a comma between the two again this is an important part of APA referencing that can't be overlooked.

The final thing I want to draw your attention to here is notice in our original text that was the start of a sentence now we have changed the capital S to a lowercase s to fit grammatically in our sentence because we have started it with. It has been argued that which is what you should be doing when you're using direct quotes in your work.

So here is an example of an information focused long quote again over 40 words so it is widely known that and we have used the same text as last time but instead of having the authors at the beginning you can now see that the authors appear at the end of the reference there notice that both authors appear in the brackets with the year and notice what's happened to the end once the end appears inside the brackets. It changes to the symbol if the authors are outside of the brackets we use the actual word and also notice there is a comma between the authors and the year and we also have the page number again.

So that brings us to the end of our short video on quotations remember to use those different styles to add variation to your work and we hope this has been helpful.

Good luck with all your referencing.

How to reference a book in APA 7th style (6:14)

Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video. Today we’ll talk about how to write a reference for a book using APA 7th style.

In this video, we’ll learn how to write a reference for whole authored books for different editions of books and for edited books.

Now in APA7th style, ebooks are treated the same as print books – and to create your reference entry correctly, you’ll need the following elements:

“….the publisher name plus any applicable DOI or URL” A DOI, or digital object identifier is a unique link that helps readers easily locate online content.

Notice that the publisher location is no longer included in APA 7th style.

So let’s take a look at what a reference entry for a book looks like in APA 7th style.

So, here’s an example of the basic format we use for referencing a book.

We invert the names so that the authors’ last name comes first, followed by a comma, and the initials. Where the author has two initials, we leave a space between the initials and all the initials are punctuated with a full stop. After the last initial we have the year of publication in round brackets followed by a full stop. Then we have the title of the book, which you can see is in italics and sentence case. Sentence case just means that only the first word of the title is capitalised. Then we have any relevant edition information which is in abbreviated form and contained within round brackets. And then the publisher name followed by a full stop, plus any relevant DOI or URL. Notice that there is no full stop after the DOI or URL.

So, let’s see how this format fits with a real example.

So here’s an example using an actual book. You can see that the author name is inverted so that the last name comes first, followed by a comma and the initial, which is punctuated with a full stop. Then we have the year of publication in round brackets, followed by a full stop.

The THIRD element is the title of the book. As you can see, the title is in italics and in sentence case. Note that when there is a two-part title like this one, capitalise the first word of the second part of the title.

Next, we have the name of the publisher followed by a full stop. We would include a DOI here if one was available.

Now, this book is from an academic research database, so we can end the reference after the publisher name; we don’t include the publisher location. But if we were citing an ebook that was not from an academic research database, then we would include a URL.

Now, what if we were citing a book that was in a later edition than the first edition? Let’s take a look…

Here is an example of a reference for a book in its fifth edition.

Notice that all the elements follow the same pattern as our previous example, only in this case, the author is the American Psychiatric Association. Again, the year of publication is contained in round brackets followed by a full stop. The title of the work comes next, in italics, and you can see after the title, in brackets, we have the edition information.

The edition information is abbreviated– you can see we have “fifth edition” in abbreviated form, with a lower case “ed” standing for “edition”. This edition information is contained within round brackets and followed with a full stop.

Now, you might notice that the publisher name is missing from this reference entry. Well, in this particular case, the publisher is the same as the author. In APA 7th style, when the publisher is the same as the author, we do not include the publisher name. So you can see here that we have omitted the publisher name, and ended the reference with the DOI.

Notice that the DOI is presented as a hyperlink, and this is the correct way to present DOI’s when using APA 7th style.

Here is an example of a reference for an edited book.

Again, we can see same basic format as our previous examples, only in this case, the names and initials are those of the editors. After the names, we have the abbreviation for the word “editors”. Notice that the abbreviation for editors is denoted by a capital “E”, and is punctuated by a full stop, and contained within round brackets. This brackets are followed by a full stop before the year of publication. Then, we have the title of the book, which is in italics and sentence case.

Notice that this reference includes the publisher name, and includes a DOI, like our previous example.

A final point: remember that when constructing your reference list, the heading “references” should be in the centre and in bold. Your entries should be in alphabetical order based on the author surnames. Your entries should be doubled spaced, without extra spacing between, and should have a hanging indent. Lastly, make sure that all works cited in-text of your assignment also appear in your reference list.

So now you now how to reference books using APA 7th style. We hope this short video has been helpful. You can find more information about referencing on SCU’s referencing homepage, or you can contact your SCU librarian, or one of the Learning Experience Team who would be happy to help you.

Referencing a journal article in APA 7th style (3:21)

Hello and welcome to this short video on how to construct a reference for a journal article in apa 7th.

In order to do this we're going to need the following bits of information.

We're going to need the author's name or names, the year of publications the title of both the article and the journal that it appears in, we're going to need the volume number the issue number, the page range and the doi otherwise known as the digital object identifier.

So this is the format that we use for a journal article. This is found on the APA 7th lib guide so let's see how this would look with an example of a journal article. So here is the article we will be using. So first we're going to need the names of the authors so here we have two authors we're going to need their surnames and their initials. We're also going to need the year of publication the title of the article the journal title, the volume issue and page range. Lastly we need the doi found here. So all of the information we need for our referencing is present on the first page of the journal.

Okay so let's see how this information can be used to format a reference for a journal article correctly in APA 7th.

So we've listed out all the information that we need here. Everything from the surname to the doi so now that we have all this information let's see how to format it correctly.

Here I've copied over the template from the APA 7th referencing guide for a journal article with two authors we're going to use. This as a point of reference because this is going to tell me how to lay out all of this information I found and in what order. It's also going to give all of the required punctuation and spacing and other formatting that I need so every comma, full stop, capital, space, bracket and italic font [are] is all provided for me if I copy that template. So let's see how this would look with the information we took off our journal.

So here we are; notice the information appears in the exact same order and I've been careful to follow all the punctuation to match the libguide.

The next thing you want to do is create a list with your reference. So first you want to format it so it's double spaced and then you want to create a hanging indent.

A hanging indent refers to when the first line sits on the left margin but all subsequent lines are indented. You can achieve this by the control or command T function in word. And a final reminder when conducting your reference list, the heading references should be in the center and in bold, your entries should be in alphabetical order based on the surnames, entries should be double spaced with no extra spacing between and should have a hanging indent and lastly, make sure all the works cited in text are in your list and all entries in your list are cited in text. And that's it for this video.

Thank you for watching and happy referencing.

Referencing articles, news agency websites APA 7th style (2:40)

Hello and welcome to this short video on how to reference online news articles in APA 7th.

To do this we'll need some specific pieces of information.

We'll need the author or author's name.

Next we'll need the date of publication or the latest update.

We'll need the title of the article, the title of the news agency and also the url.

So the format for the reference is found on the APA seventh libguide. Just note the url link should be live so the reader can access the article by clicking on it and going directly to the page and we want to use the most specific date possible for our entries.

So let's have a look at an example. Here we have a BBC News article, the individual who authored the article is here, the date of publication is below that, the title of the page is here and the title of the news agency is here. Lastly the url can be found right there so here I've compiled that information.

The next step is to use it to match the APA 7th formatting. So again here we have the format from that libguide and as you can see we've got an entry that matches that. We have the surname Murray a comma, followed by the first initial a and a full stop.

Next we have the year of publication in brackets and using this most specific date which is August 27 2020 followed by another full stop.

Next we have the title which is in italics in this case the title finishes with the question mark so that will take the place of the full stop. This is followed by the news agency title BBC News and another full stop before the url.

So this is what it would look like as a reference entry. Remember for APA 7th your references should be double spaced with a hanging indent where the first line aligns with the left margin and subsequent lines are indented. Note that you can use ctrl or command t to get that hanging indent quickly.

Lastly as a reminder make sure to use the heading references centred and in bold. Make sure your entries are in alphabetical order by the surname and that you're using double spacing without adding any extra spaces between entries and don't forget to make sure that you've concluded all the sources in text.

So we hope this video has been useful and happy referencing.


Harvard style referencing

How to reference books in Harvard style (7:20)

hi everyone and welcome to this short video let's talk about how to write a reference for books using the new harvard referencing style which will come into effect at southern cross university on november the 1st 2022 so here are the elements that you'll need to reference a book correctly you can usually find this information on the front or back cover or somewhere on the first couple of pages of the book or in the library catalog ebooks and online books have a slightly different way of being referenced and this will be covered later in the video so here's an example of a library catalog let's see where the referencing information is usually found you'll need the author name or names the year of publication the title of the book any edition number the publishing company and lastly the place of publication the place of publication is the location or city of the publisher if more than one place is listed just use the first one or the one that's highlighted in bold type if there is one if no city is listed you can just use the state so here is the basic format for referencing a book in harvard style this is how to arrange the referencing information that is drawn from our catalog first there are the authors keeping the author's names in the same order as they appear in the book start with the author's last name followed by their initial there is a comma to separate the first two authors but we place an and before the last author's name not an ampersand notice that in harvard style we do not use full stops to punctuate the author's initials after the last author's initial we have a space before the year of publication which is in brackets this is followed by the title of the book which is in italics and sentence case sentence case just means capitalizing the first word of the title and any proper nouns next we have the publisher name followed by a comma and the place of publication followed by a full stop so let's have a look at how our book fits with this format first we have the author's last names and their initials our book has only two authors so we simply use an and before the last author's name not a comma see that after the last author's initial we have a space before the year of publication then after the year of publication we have the title of the book which is in italics and sentence case notice how this title has two parts after a colon or dash the next word is in lower case then comes the publisher name a comma and the place of publication which is usually the city and a full stop now what if our book was an edited book or a book in another edition again we can find all the information on the first few pages of the book itself or in the library catalog so let's have a look at this example for the information we need the editor's name the year of publication the title of the book the edition number and this book appears to be in its first edition the publishing company and the place of publication here's an example of the format we use for referencing an edited book notice that the elements follow the same pattern as our previous example but instead of the author names there are the names of the editors for the in-text citation the abbreviation at al is used for three or more editors only the first editor's surname is cited in the reference list again there is a comma separating the first two editors and an and separating the last two editors then after the last initial comes the abbreviation for the word editors which you can see is eds all in lower case and this information is contained within round brackets then comes the year of publication note that there is no comma between the editor information and the year of publication there is only a space before the book title publisher and place a publication so let's have a look at how our book fits with this format first comes the editor's last names and their initials as our book has three editors we have used commas to separate the first two editors and an and before the last editor's name after the last editor's initial is the editor information contained in round brackets and then a space before the year of publication next comes the title of the book which is in italics and sentence case notice that in sentence case we use capitals for the first word of the title as well as for names or proper nouns so we have capitalized the name wiley blackwell as well the title is followed by a comma and then we have the publisher name a comma and the place of publication now let's take a look at how to reference a book in an edition other than the first edition here is the basic format for referencing a book in another edition note that all the elements follow the same pattern as our earlier examples only in this example you can see the edition information is placed after the title of the book notice that this information is in abbreviated form the letters e d n stand for the word edition the edition information is followed by a comma before the publisher of the book so let's look at an example again our reference starts with the author's names followed by a space and then their initials the two authors are separated by an and after the last author's initials we have a space before the date 2020 in round brackets next comes the title in italics and sentence case now this book is in its fifth edition and this information is after the title in abbreviated form then after the addition information a comma is included followed by the publication name and location and finally a full stop now sometimes a book has been revised since its earlier published version but it's not a new edition this can happen when the author has made minor updates to the content or has corrected it in some way but these changes aren't substantial enough to warrant it being an entirely new edition if this is the case include the abbreviation for revised edition denoted here by the letters edn space rev followed by the comma if you are using a book with a doi you don't need to put in the place of publication if you use an ebook from the library you can reference it just like a print book however some open access ebooks will not have a place of publication now you can see all the books discussed in this video have been included in this example references list the reference list should always begin on a new page at the end of your document with the heading references in bold and centered at the top of the page you can see that the references have been arranged in alphabetical order based on the first author's surnames remember to include all the works you cited in your assignment in your reference list at the end of your paper so now you know how to reference books and ebooks in the harvard style we hope this has been helpful there is more information too so don't forget you can access scu's online reference guides through a link on the library homepage to explore further and happy referencing we'll see you next time

How to edit a chapter in an edited book in Harvard style (4:41)

hi everyone and welcome to this short video today you will learn how to write a reference for a chapter in an edited book using the harvard referencing style an edited book usually comprises of a number of chapters that are each written by a different author when you use information from a chapter in an edited or collected work the author or authors of the chapter must be credited so let's take a look at how to do this to reference a chapter in an edited book you'll need the chapter author name or names the year of publication the title of the chapter the name or names of the editors the title of the whole book the publisher name and the publisher location all the information needed is on the first few pages of the book itself or in the library catalog so here is an example of an online library catalog let's look at where the referencing information might be found now it is difficult to fit the whole catalog entry on this screen so you may need to scroll down to find some of the necessary elements for example the first element needed is the chapter author names so scroll down to the chapter information to find this information so here we have the chapter information and we're looking at chapter three the first thing needed is the chapter author names which as you can see are wendy d manning and susan l brown we also have the title of the chapter american families demographic trends and social class more information can be found on the copyright page of both books and ebooks for example here we have the year of publication 2014 the names of the editors jay j l scott and m richards the title of the whole book the wily blackwell companion to the sociology of families the publisher name john wiley and sons and the publisher location cheerchester here is an example of the basic format for referencing an edited book first is the chapter author names notice that all the names are reversed so that the last name or surname comes first followed by a space and then the initial or initials for each chapter author note that there is an and separating the second last chapter author and the last author there is no ampersand or comma then there is a space after the last author's initial before the year of publication which is in brackets the title of the chapter comes next which is in single quotation marks and in sentence case this is followed by a comma then the word in in lowercase followed by the editors names notice that these names are also inverted so that their last name comes first before their first name initial and there is no punctuation between the initials and the last name then there is an abbreviated form of the word editors which is donated by eds and placed within round brackets then comes the title of the whole book which is in italics and sentence case this is followed by a comma before we have the publisher name a comma and the publisher location so let's see how our book fits with this format and here it is again the same general pattern as our previous example applies first we have the chapter author names which are arranged with the last name first followed by a space and then the initials and in this case there are only two authors which are separated by an and then after a space comes the year of publication followed by a space next we have the title of the chapter in single quotes followed by a comma then the word in and the editor names which follow the same format as the author names that is their last name followed by a space and the first name initial the editors names are followed by the abbreviated word for editors which is contained in round brackets and then a space before the title of the whole book notice that in this title the name wiley blackwell is capitalized next comes the name of the publisher and then the location of the publisher so we've reached the end of the video remember to include all of the citations you've used in the text of your assignment in your reference list at the end of your document this should also be on a new page with the heading references in bold and centered the reference entries should be ordered alphabetically based on the first author's name we hope this short video has been helpful you can find more information about referencing through a link on the library's homepage or you can contact your seo librarian or one of the learning experience team members who would be happy to help you

Paraphrasing, citing in-text Harvard style (6:02)

hello and welcome to this short video prepared by the learning experience team this video will show you how to write an in-text citation for a paraphrase using harvard referencing style paraphrasing means expressing someone else's ideas in your own words when you paraphrase something you express the original meaning of the idea used but with different words now when paraphrasing it's very important to acknowledge where the idea came from by including a citation this is why in-text citations are important they allow your readers to link your main points to where the information was sourced so let's have a look at how this is done using the harvard referencing there are basically two ways to reference a paraphrase in the body of your assignment an author focused format or an information focused format author focus citations have the author's name outside the brackets these citations are integrated into the sentence and are either at the beginning or in the middle of sentences we use this format when we want to draw attention to the author they may be an important theorist in your discipline or part of the required reading in your unit here we have an example of some original text written by smith who is the author smith states that students often find referencing in the body of their work difficult to understand and do correctly those are the author's exact words that idea can be paraphrased into your own words and then referenced here are some examples of how this might look using an autofocus style the sentence in the first example is smith argued that in-text citations can be confusing so here is the author's name first then the year in brackets then the reporting clause argued that and then the paraphrase of the original idea in the next example note that the author has been integrated further into the middle of the sentence according to smith in-text citations can be confusing in this sentence the reporting verb according to is first and then the author smith then the year in brackets followed by a comma and then the paraphrased idea and finally in this last example note that the author has moved towards the end of the sentence in-text citations can be confusing as smith 2020 pointed out in a recent study the paraphrase comes first followed by a comma and then the author the year and the reporting clause now let's take a look at information focus citations in this format the author's name is contained inside the brackets this type of citation most frequently appears in the middle or at the end of the sentence unlike author focused referencing this kind of referencing is to draw attention to the actual information so let's look at some examples so here again is the original text by the author smith you can see that in the first example the citation appears right at the end of the sentence so i'll paraphrase first it has been argued that in-text citations can be confusing and then at the very end we have the author and year contained in round brackets this is followed by a full stop it's important to note that there is no comma between the author and the year just a space in the second example the citation is embedded in the middle of the sentence so the paraphrase comes first in-text citations can be a little confusing this is followed by the citation smith 2020 in brackets notice again that there is only a space between the author name and the date there is no comma this is then followed by an additional idea which poses a challenge for many students when thinking about which way to reference in your paper author focused or information focused are both suitable styles to use and one is not necessarily better than the other in fact it's useful to mix it up a little and use both styles in your paper

 

now let's have a look at how to cite multiple authors in text when a work has two authors the names are cited in the order in which they appear in the reference so the first example shows how to reference a paraphrase with two authors using an author-focused style remember an author-focused style integrates the authors into the sentence so this sentence starts with the author names smith and jones and the year in round brackets notice that the word and is used between the author names instead of the symbol or ampersand then the reporting verb and then the paraphrase the second example shows how to cite in text using an author focus style when the work has two authors here we can see the first author's name followed by the word and and then the second author's name and then the year in round brackets now if a work has three or more authors the last name of the first author is only cited followed by an al and al is the latin term for and others so the first example shows how more than three authors are cited when using an author focus style which is integrated into the text you can see that the abbreviated word al is punctuated with a full stop and there is only a space between the full stop and the date there is no comma now the second example shows how more than three authors are cited using an information focus style again the word al is punctuated with a full stop and then there is a space before the date in conclusion when paraphrasing use your own words to explain someone else's idea and then reference the idea to avoid plagiarism remember you can use information-focused or author-focused formats in your writing using both styles is a useful idea because it will add variety to your writing and referencing we hope this video has been helpful and best of luck with all of your referencing

How to reference a journal article in Harvard style (7:07)

hi everyone and welcome to this short video today you'll learn how to write a reference for a journal article using the harvard referencing style if you used information from a journal article in your assignment you'll need some important pieces of information to create your reference entry these are the author name or names the year of publication the title of the article the journal title the volume number the issue number if given the page range or article number and the doi if available now all the elements needed for the reference can be found on the first page of the journal so let's go through and highlight the elements needed in the order required first the author name on names so here there is one author next the year of publication which is here now you can see here that we have a potentially confusing situation there are two publication dates the online publication date down here and the journal publication date up here given that the main purpose of the publication date is to direct people to the article either one will work just fine today i'm going to use the journal publication date here next the title of the article is needed which is quite obvious here then the title of the journal which can be found here and we can find the volume number here sometimes the volume number is preceded by the letters vol but here there is just the number itself and there doesn't appear to be an issue number for this journal but the page range is here at the bottom of the same page we can see the doi here which is presented as a hyperlink so now we have all the elements needed for writing the reference all these details will be found on the first page of the article but the information may be found in slightly different places on the page depending on the journal sometimes it is necessary to open the pdf of the article to find all the details so let's see how all these elements fit together using the harvard referencing style here is the basic format for a reference for a print or electronic journal this format is used to cite most articles from print or electronic journals or articles in this example let's start with the author notice there is no comma after the author's initial and the date there is only a space this is important to note because harvard's style is unique from other styles of referencing then a space is placed between the date which is in brackets and the title notice that the title of the journal article is in single quotes and it is in sentence case followed by a comma sentence case just means that only the first letter of the first word is capitalized and other words are not unless they are proper nouns or names next there is the title of the journal itself which is in title case which means all the main words are capitalized and it's also in italics this is followed by the volume and then the issue number in brackets which is followed by a colon then comes the page range directly after the colon and if there's a doi it is placed at the end of the reference entry so let's have a look at how the article we just looked at fits with this format notice that the title of the journal article is in single quotes and it is in sentence case followed by a comma next is the title of the journal itself which is italicized and in title case this is followed by the volume number there was no issue number for this article so the page range is after the colon all these elements are separated by a comma finally the doi this is the only format for the doi lower case then a colon then the doi number followed by a full stop now let's look at an example with multiple authors here you can see there are three authors all the author names are reversed so that the surname comes first and the surnames are all followed by their initials notice that there is no punctuation or spacing between the initials notice that there is a comma separating the first two authors and there is not a comma separating the second author from the last author there is an and notice again that there is a space between the last initial and the date of publication which is in brackets next is the title of the work which is in sentence case and in single quotes then a comma and then the title of the journal itself which is in title case and in italics this is followed by the volume the issue in brackets the page range and then the do i now let's take a look at how to reference an electronic source with an article number article numbers or e-locators are used instead of page ranges and sometimes issues in many journals here again we have the author last name and initials separated by an and not an amber send then the date is in brackets followed by a space and then the title of the journal article in single quotes followed by a comma and then the title of the journal itself in italics with the first letter of each word capitalized this is followed by the volume the issue in brackets and the article number in lowercase we use no instead of number and then we follow this with the doi now let's take a look at how to reference an electronic source that doesn't have a dui or full bibliographic details here again first is the author's last name a space and the initial notice that there are no punctuation or spaces between the initials next is the title of the journal article in single quotes followed by a comma and the title of the journal itself in italics with the first letter of each main word capitalized finally all of your references should be included in your reference list this should begin on a new page with the heading references in bold and centered at the top of this page you can see here a short reference list created from the references used in this video notice that the references are arranged in alphabetical order based on the first author's surname remember that all the works you cited in your assignment should appear in your reference list at the end of your document so now you know how to reference journal articles in harvard style we hope this has been helpful don't forget you can access scu's online reference guides through a link on the library's homepage if you want more information good luck with your referencing you

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