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Learning Zone videos

How-to referencing examples on this page include APA 7th and Harvard styles.

* Please check with your Unit Assessor for the correct referencing requirements to use in your course or unit.

Learning Zone Workshops are also recorded and available here.

APA 7th Edition referencing styles

Transition to referencing with APA 7th style (10:30)

Hello and welcome to this short video prepared by the Learning Experience Team. Today, we’re going to look at some of the changes in the new 7th edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual.

In this video, we’ll be looking at a number of basic elements of APA Style. We’ll take a look at the guidelines for formatting student papers, including the new standards for heading styles and tables and figures. We’ll also learn about writing using bias-free, gender-neutral language. Then, we’ll take a look at the guidelines for in-text references and reference lists.

In APA 7th edition, there are some minor changes to the presentation requirements for student papers.

First, unless instructed otherwise by your lecturer, assignments no longer include a running head. This means that for student papers, your title page should only include the page number 1 in the top, right-hand corner of the page.

Also, the title of your assignment should be centred and bold, and placed three to four double-spaced lines down from the top of the page. Notice how the other elements of the title page are centred on the page.

In APA 7th edition, there are more fonts to choose from. The most important thing is that fonts should be easy to read for all users.

Make sure that whatever font you choose, you use that same font throughout your assignment.

Headings are important because they help you logically organise your thoughts and structure your paper. They also help readers find key points and track the development of your arguments” (APA, 2020).

As you can see from this table, all headings are now in bold and title case. Note that for heading levels 1-3, the text begins indented as a new paragraph. For heading levels 4 and 5, the text begins on the same line as the heading.

If you’re writing an essay, do not begin with an “Introduction” heading. Because the first paragraph of your paper is considered introductory, the heading is not needed.

Also, note that all section labels are now in bold, so that means your “Abstract” and “References” headings will now be in BOLD.

In APA 7, tables and figures are now formatted in the same way. Each table and figure should be given a title that is clear and explanatory, and aligned to the left margin (APA, 2020).

1. You will see from this figure that the heading “Figure” and the number “1” are BOLD. The applies to tables too.

2. You can see also that the title is in title case and italics, just like tables.

3. Figures also now have notes (instead of a caption) =- THIS ALSO IS formatted in the same way as Tables.

APA seventh edition has updated their guidelines for writing about all people with inclusivity and respect. Before the seventh edition, people were limited to the use of “she” and “he” when referring to others in academic writing, for example, ‘Each student should complete his or her assignment by the due date’.

However, this sentence makes assumptions about the gender of students which may not necessarily be accurate.

A more inclusive, gender-neutral way of writing about people uses the singular “they”, e.g., ‘Each student should complete their essay by the due date’.

Using the singular “they” was once frowned on in academic writing, but it is now endorsed as part of APA Style because “it is inclusive of all people and helps writers avoid making assumptions about gender” (APA, 2020).

The singular “they” should be used in two main instances:

When referring to a generic person whose gender is unknown or irrelevant to the context; and
When referring to a specific, known person who uses “they” as their pronoun (Lee, 2019).

If you are writing about a specific, known person, always use that person’s pronoun. It might be “he”, “she”, “they” – if you’re unsure, ask them what designation they prefer and use that language (APA, 2020).

If a person uses “she” or “he”, you must use that pronoun. Do not use “they”. Similarly, if a person uses “they”, do not use “he” or “she” (Lee, 2019).

Here are some examples of bias-free language.

When you are writing about people, it is important to talk them with respect. And its a good idea to use the language that people use to describe themselves. In general, descriptive phrases are preferred over using adjectives as nouns to describe people. When reporting age, precise age ranges are preferred over broad, open-ended definitions (APA, 2020).

The APA’s guidelines for using bias-free language cover a range of individual characteristics, such as age, disability, gender, racial and ethnic identity, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status. Take a look at the online resources listed at the end of this video and do your own research to make sure your academic writing is always clear, precise, and respectful. 

In APA 7th edition, guidelines for in-text citations have been simplified. The in-text citation for a work with three or more authors has now been shortened to include only the first author’s name and “et al.”, even in the first citation.

There are also changes to the number of authors that are included in a reference entry. Previously, you were expected to list up to 7 authors in your reference list.

When using APA 7 style, you must provide all the surnames and initials for up to 20 authors in the reference list.

When there are up to 20 authors, use an ampersand before the last author’s name.

When citing works by 21 or more authors, you must include the first 19 authors, then insert an ellipsis (set of dots) before the last author’s name.

When citing books in your reference list, provide the author, year of publication, title and publisher of the book. Do not include the publisher location.

If the book includes a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.

In cases where the book’s author and publisher are an exact match, the publisher is also omitted.

Most journal articles and books have a DOI. A DOI, or Digital Object Identifier, is a unique link that makes it easier for readers to retrieve online content (APA, 2020).

You should include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, even if you didn’t use the online version.

To format your reference list correctly in APA 7, present DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks.

Also remember that:

Because a hyperlink links readers directly to the article, do not include the words “Retrieved from” before the DOI.

The formatting of DOIs has changed over time. So remember to change all DOIs into the new, preferred format for all reference entries.

Also, do not add line breaks manually, and don’t add a full stop after the DOI because this could interfere with the link’s functionality (APA, 2020).

The link should live be if the work is to be published or read online.

URLs are also no longer preceded by “Retrieved from”. The words “Retrieved from” are only used when a retrieval date is needed (e.g., if you were citing a Census report where content changes frequently over time).

eBooks are now treated the same as print books. If the book includes a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.

If an online work does not have a DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the publisher name. Don’t include the publisher location.

You would only include a URL if the online work doesn’t have a DOI and is not from an academic research database.

Also, when citing ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g., Kindle) is no longer included in the reference.

Also, make sure you always use the most specific date possible for webpages.

If a journal uses article numbers, include the word “Article” before the number instead of the page range.

This how-to video has highlighted just some of the important changes that students will need to know when writing in APA 7th style.

There are a lot of other changes too. For more information about APA Style, speak with your SCU librarians – they will be able to help you. There are also great online resources from the APA website (listed here).

We hope you’ve found this video helpful, but if you have more questions, ask your SCU librarian or check out the great online resources in the Student Learning Zone, on the university website.

 

Introduction to referencing (6:14)

Hello and welcome to an introductory video on referencing for academic writing.

So what exactly is referencing?

Referencing is a method used to acknowledge when ideas, information, data, words, images or examples from the work of others are included in your academic writing. Referencing is one of the most important ways that students practice academic integrity when writing at university. Academic integrity is about applying the belief that honesty is at the core of exemplary scholarship.

So why is it important to reference?

Firstly, practicing academic integrity is all about acknowledging when we use the work of others and only taking credit for work we create ourselves. This is important to allow others to find sources of evidence to build upon the academic knowledge you have produced. Thirdly it's about acknowledging and showing respect. It's also about validity and credibility so good referencing strengthens your writing. And finally, often at university we are expected to use certain sources for particular pieces of assessment by referencing correctly you prove that you have used these sources and also show your marker the scope of your research.

So what is involved in referencing?

Well, whenever you synthesize or put together information from a number of sources and incorporate it with your own ideas you must acknowledge where all of these ideas came from. The most common writing types that require referencing are paraphrasing or stating an idea in your own words summarizing and direct quotations using the exact words of another person. Secondly, it's very important that you use the appropriate style and format to acknowledge the work of others this is achieved in two different ways within academic writing. In in-text citations which are found within the paragraphs and in real reference list.

So what does referencing look like?

Here's a couple of examples of in-text referencing where the author of the original ideas is acknowledged within the paragraphs it's optional whether you use this information prominent style where the author's name is included in the citation brackets or this author prominent style where the author's name is incorporated into the sentence in a grammatically correct manner. It's best to use a combination of both of these styles in your in-text citations. And for your reference list here we can see the entries for a typical journal article you can see that Harvard and APA entries are included here this is because they are the two most commonly used referencing styles at scu note the difference between the two styles here such as the use of brackets around the year of publication for APA but not for Harvard.

So when is it necessary to use citations in your academic writing?

You must reference every time you use evidence to support your arguments and claims that have come from the literature you have sourced. This includes tables statistics and images, definitions of terms or concepts, quoting summarizing and paraphrasing.

So what's involved in the process?

There are roughly five steps in producing accurate referencing.

First you need to identify the style required for your school or unit, then identify the type of source that you are using, third identify and record the required elements from the source and you'll find these required elements in your guides for each style and then it's about entering the required referencing into your assignment. Both in text and in the reference list. And finishing with some editing and double checking this means doing a cross check to ensure that all of your sources cited in your writing are in the reference list and vice versa all of the sources included in your reference list have been cited in text.

I'll show you quickly where to find the SCU referencing guides if you go to the library web page scroll to the bottom to find the quick links you can access the referencing guides through these two links. [Library referencing guides]

If you click Libguides it will take you to this page where you can click on the appropriate referencing guide. If you click the referencing link you'll find the referencing guides listed by school. So just scroll through until you find your school and the particular guide that you should be using.

Further resources are available on the student learning zone web page to access the student learning zone click on current students then student learning zone and it will bring you to this home page.

From here you can access how to videos on APA and Harvard referencing you can access the quick guides on summarizing and paraphrasing using quotations and other aspects of academic integrity and avoiding plagiarism.

There are also workshops available throughout the session and recordings of previous workshops on avoiding plagiarism and (examples of good) academic writing. Through the student appointments link you can use the ask a question function to ask a learning coach about referencing or submit your assignment for review.

You can also book an appointment to speak directly with a learning coach who can provide advice on referencing and academic integrity. You can also speak directly with the librarian either on campus or through the library chat function if you click on this button from the library webpage this chat window opens up. From here you can ask the librarian for help.

Thank you for watching. All the best with your studies and again please contact the student learning zone or the library if you require any further information on referencing.

How to reference a chapter in a book in APA 7th style (6:37)

Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video. Today we are going to talk about how to write a reference for a chapter in a book using APA 7th style.

As you may know, in APA7th style, ebooks are treated the same as print books – and to create your reference entry correctly, you’ll need the following elements:

“….the publisher name plus any applicable DOI or URL”

Notice that a publisher location is not included in APA 7th style.

So let’s take a look at what a reference entry for a chapter in a book looks like in APA 7th style.

So, here’s an example of the basic format for referencing a chapter in an edited book.

You can see that the first element is the chapter author names. Note that the names are inverted so that the last name comes first, followed by a comma and then the initials. Notice that there is a space between the initials and these are punctuated with a full stop. But notice that after the first author’s initial we have a full stop and a comma before the ampersand. The next element is the year of publication which is contained in round brackets and punctuated with a full stop.

Next, we have the title of the chapter. Notice that the title is in normal font, it is not italicised, and it’s in sentence case (which means that only the first letter of the first word is capitalised). And the chapter name ends with a full stop.

Now, the next element is the names of the editors. Here, we write the word “In” followed by the editor names. Notice that the editor names are not inverted, so the editors’ initials comes before their last name. The editor name is followed by an abbreviation of the word “Editors” which we can see has a capitalised “E” and a lower case “ds”. This information is punctuated with a full stop and contained in round brackets, which is followed immediately by a comma.

Next, we have the title of the whole book, which we can see is in italics. Now after the title, in round brackets, we have any edition information as well as the page range of the chapter. You can see that the edition information and the page rage is separated by a comma, and that the page rage is denoted by pp.

Then the next element is the name of the publisher, followed by a full stop, followed by the DOI or URL. Note that we don’t put a full stop after the DOI or URL.

So, here’s an example of a reference for a book.

You can see that the chapter author names are inverted, and that the initials are punctuated with a full stop. Notice the comma separating first author’s initial from the ampersand. The next element is the year of publication which is contained in round brackets and punctuated with a full stop.

Next, we have the title of the chapter. Notice that the title is in normal font and in sentence case and punctuated with a full stop.

Now, the next element is the name of the editor. We can see that the editor’s initial comes before the last name along with the word “In” (capitalised). The editor name is followed by an abbreviation of the word “Editor” which we can see has a capitalised “E”, a lower case “d”, and a full stop, which is contained within round brackets. This is followed by a comma.

Next, we have the title of the whole book, which we can see is in italics, and the page range which is contained in round brackets. Then the last element is the name of the publisher, followed by a full stop. We would include a DOI here if one was available.

Now, this book is from an academic research database, so we can end the reference after the publisher name; we don’t include the publisher location. But if we were citing a book that did not have a DOI and was not from an academic research database, then we would include a URL.

And just remember when constructing your reference list, the heading “references” should be in the centre and in bold. Your entries should be in alphabetical order based on the author surnames. Your entries should be doubled spaced, without extra spacing between, and should have a hanging indent. Lastly, make sure all works cited in-text are in your list and all entries in your list are cited in-text.

So now you now how to reference a chapter in a book in APA 7th style. If you want to know more about referencing, have a look at SCU’s online referencing guides – you can find a link to those guides on the library’s homepage – or ask your friendly Learning Experience Team – and good luck with your referencing!

Paraphrasing, citing in-text APA 7th style (4:14)

Hello and welcome to this short video on how to cite in-text by paraphrasing in APA 7th referencing style.

This video will cover the methods used to paraphrase. examples of these and some final points to remember. Now there are two ways if we want to reference a paraphrase in text using APA 7th referencing style.

These are author focused and information focused and we're going to look at both of these today.

Firstly if we look at author focused what happens is the author's name or names if there are multiple authors appear outside of the brackets usually in these types of citations the author will appear at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence and we use this method if we want to draw particular attention to the author that we have referenced.

Let's have a look at some examples. Here is the original text written by Smith and we can see it says;

Students often find referencing in the main text of their work a little difficult to understand and do correctly.

So we want to use that idea but obviously we have to paraphrase it into our own words and then reference Smith.

So the first method shows that the author starts the sentence Smith in brackets (2012) argued that in-text citations could be a little confusing.

That is one way to achieve that paraphrase the second example we have added the reporting verb first so according to Smith (2012), in brackets again and then a comma in-text citations could be a little confusing.

And now the final example has moved the author further into the middle of the sentence;

In-text citations can be quite confusing as Smith (2012) pointed out in a recent study.

So all three of these are equally valid but. Just notice that Smith appears outside of the brackets in each case.

Now if we move on to information focus style paraphrasing in this case the author's name or names appear inside the brackets this type of citation will often appear in the middle or at the end of the sentence and unlike author focus referencing this is what we use if we want to draw attention to the actual information itself.

So here are some examples of how we would use information focus referencing again we have the original text (written by Smith) Students often find referencing in the main text of their work a little difficult to understand and do correctly.

So that's the idea we want to use so we need to paraphrase it and reference Smith so in the first example you can see that the author now appears at the end of the reference;

It has been argued that in-text citations could be a little confusing (Smith, 2012).

An important feature of APA 7th referencing is that the comma always appears between the author or authors and the year so it's important not to leave that small detail out.

A second example shows the author appearing in the middle of the sentence in-text citations can be a little confusing.

There's the paraphrase (Smith, 2012), in brackets and then we have added our own comment to that and this poses a major challenge for students.

So if the author and the information prominent are suitable methods to paraphrase.

The important thing to remember with paraphrasing however as we've seen in those examples is keeping the original meaning of the idea and words we want to use but putting them into our own words.

That is the crucial point, that is how we avoid plagiarism. The other thing to remember now that we have both of these styles is that using a combination of these can also help vary your writing.

So instead of just using one author first or information first and having repetitive writing, try mixing it up a little to give it that variety.

And that will bring us to the end of this video.

We hope that it's been helpful to you and good luck with all of your referencing.

Referencing websites in APA 7th style (4:11)

Hello and welcome to this short video on how to reference websites in APA 7th.

To do this we'll need some specific pieces of information.

We'll need the author or authors this can be an individual or it can be an organization referred to as a group author. Next we'll need the date of publication or the latest update we'll need the title of the website and the title of the webpage or document found on the web page.

The format for the reference will differ slightly depending on whether it's individual or a group author. This format is found on the APA 7th libguide. Just note the url link should be live so the reader can click on it and go directly to the page and we want to use the most specific date possible for our reference entries.

So let's have a look at some examples.

First, we'll look at a web page with an individual author then we'll look at a web page with a group author. So here we have a generic web page, the individual who authored this page is here and the date of publication is below that. The title of the page is here nice and clearly and the title of the website is here. Lastly the url can be found here.

So, I've compiled that information.

The next step is to match the APA 7th formatting. So, this is the formatting from the APA 7th libguide and as you can see this entry matches it perfectly. We have the author's surname, Darling, a comma followed by the first initial b and a full stop. Next we have the year of publication in brackets and remember to use the most specific date which is June 1st 2020. Followed by another full stop.

Next the webpage title is in italics with another full stop followed by the website title, Urban List and another full stop before the url. So, let's have a look at a group author example now.

Here is a web page by the world health organization because there is no individual author listed we are going to use the group author which is usually found here.

You can see the date of publication here and the title of the web page.

Lastly we have the url here so again I've compiled this information now let's have a look at the libguide formatting.

So, this again is straight from your libguide and this is what the entry looks like when you match that formatting as you can see we have the group author world health organization full stop the specific date of publication or last update in brackets and another full stop. We have the title in italics followed by a full stop and because the name of the website is the same as the group name we don't need to include that here. Lastly because this information may change as the world health organization undertakes more research. I've included the retrieval date in the form of retrieved August 31st 2020 from and the url.

So that's what the entry looks like when you follow the APA 7 format.

Now let's look at what that looks like in the reference list. Here are our two entries in alphabetical order, double spacing with a hanging indent. Note you can use ctrl t or command t to quickly get the hanging indent.

Lastly as a reminder make sure your heading references is centred and bold, make sure your entries are in alphabetical order by the surname, use double spacing without adding any extra spaces between entries and don't forget to check and make sure you've included all the sources cited in text.

So we hope this video has been useful. Happy referencing.

Quotations, citing in-text APA 7th (5:29)

Hello and welcome to this short video on how to cite in text using direct quotations in APA 7th referencing style.

This video will cover the methods used to quote in text some examples of these and some final points to remember. The rules for quoting revolve around the length of the quote for quotes less than 40 words they should be included in the main sentence in the text. However if your quote is more than 40 words they should be presented in block format and indented without quotation marks.

We'll look at examples of both of these. So firstly we have the author focus style of direct quotes Here the author's name or names if there are multiple authors appear outside of the brackets Usually this type of citation occurs at the beginning or the middle of the sentence and we use it if we want to draw particular attention to the author we are using.

So here are some examples of this using a short quote our original text written by Jones is that students often find getting the reference list exactly correct quite difficult.

We're going to use that quote word for word but in three examples just have a look at the different position of the author's name. In the first one Jones is outside of the brackets as we said then 2017 a comma and the p there represents page number and we need a page number when we are direct quoting in APA 7 style.

In the second one you can see something has changed the reporting verb in this case according to comes before the author and then the quote occurs and finally we have an introduction to the idea. Many students experience great difficulty in. And then using the part of the quote that we want. As Jones 2017 page seven pointed out in a recent study. These are all variations of doing the same thing with direct quotes.

Now let's have a look at an author focused example with a longer quote so as we said earlier if a direct quote is for is longer than 40 words it has to be presented in a different style. We have the original text this time written by two authors now if we look at the quote you can see that it has been presented in a different way.

So according to McRudden and Ross notice that both the authors appear outside of the brackets and notice that we use the actual word and a and d to refer to them.

Then we have the brackets 2017 and the page number which is what is required for direct quotes. In this case however we don't use any quotation marks it has been indented into a block as you can see there. Now if I move away from author focused I can also introduce a quote with information focus in this case the author's name or names appear inside the brackets. We usually find this type of quotation in the middle or end of the sentence and we use it when we want to draw attention to the actual information itself rather than the author.

So an example might look like this. Again here is the original short text which i'll use in my quote that is under 40 words students often find getting the reference list exactly correct quite difficult.

Okay so this is how it might look it has been argued that and now I have the direct quote. Students often find getting the references exactly correct quite difficult followed by the citation in brackets Jones comma 2017 comma p.7 for page seven. A couple of things to notice here. Notice that it's a double quotation mark that we use in APA 7 style which is important to remember.

The other thing to notice is that the author is inside the brackets with the year this time and notice that there is a comma between the two again this is an important part of APA referencing that can't be overlooked.

The final thing I want to draw your attention to here is notice in our original text that was the start of a sentence now we have changed the capital S to a lowercase s to fit grammatically in our sentence because we have started it with. It has been argued that which is what you should be doing when you're using direct quotes in your work.

So here is an example of an information focused long quote again over 40 words so it is widely known that and we have used the same text as last time but instead of having the authors at the beginning you can now see that the authors appear at the end of the reference there notice that both authors appear in the brackets with the year and notice what's happened to the end once the end appears inside the brackets. It changes to the symbol if the authors are outside of the brackets we use the actual word and also notice there is a comma between the authors and the year and we also have the page number again.

So that brings us to the end of our short video on quotations remember to use those different styles to add variation to your work and we hope this has been helpful.

Good luck with all your referencing.

How to reference a book in APA 7th style (6:13)

Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video. Today we’ll talk about how to write a reference for a book using APA 7th style.

In this video, we’ll learn how to write a reference for whole authored books for different editions of
books and for edited books.

Now in APA7th style, ebooks are treated the same as print books – and to create your reference entry correctly, you’ll need the following elements:

“….the publisher name plus any applicable DOI or URL” A DOI, or digital object identifier is a unique link that helps readers easily locate online content.

Notice that the publisher location is no longer included in APA 7th style.

So let’s take a look at what a reference entry for a book looks like in APA 7th style.

So, here’s an example of the basic format we use for referencing a book.

We invert the names so that the authors’ last name comes first, followed by a comma, and the initials. Where the author has two initials, we leave a space between the initials and all the initials are punctuated with a full stop. After the last initial we have the year of publication in round brackets followed by a full stop.

Then we have the title of the book, which you can see is in italics and sentence case. Sentence case just means that only the first word of the title is capitalised. Then we have any relevant edition information which is in abbreviated form and contained within round brackets. And then the publisher name followed by a full stop, plus any relevant DOI or URL. Notice that there is no full stop after the DOI or URL.

So, let’s see how this format fits with a real example.

So here’s an example using an actual book. You can see that the author name is inverted so that the last name comes first, followed by a comma and the initial, which is punctuated with a full stop. Then we have the year of publication in round brackets, followed by a full stop.

The THIRD element is the title of the book. As you can see, the title is in italics and in sentence case. Note that when there is a two-part title like this one, capitalise the first word of the second part of the title.

Next, we have the name of the publisher followed by a full stop. We would include a DOI here if one was available.

Now, this book is from an academic research database, so we can end the reference after the publisher name; we don’t include the publisher location. But if we were citing an ebook that was not from an academic research database, then we would include a URL.

Now, what if we were citing a book that was in a later edition than the first edition? Let’s take a look…

Here is an example of a reference for a book in its fifth edition.

Notice that all the elements follow the same pattern as our previous example, only in this case, the author is the American Psychiatric Association. Again, the year of publication is contained in round brackets followed by a full stop. The title of the work comes next, in italics, and you can see after the title, in brackets, we have the edition information.

The edition information is abbreviated– you can see we have “fifth edition” in abbreviated form, with a lower case “ed” standing for “edition”. This edition information is contained within round brackets and followed with a full stop.

Now, you might notice that the publisher name is missing from this reference entry. Well, in this particular case, the publisher is the same as the author. In APA 7th style, when the publisher is the same as the author, we do not include the publisher name. So you can see here that we have omitted the publisher name, and ended the reference with the DOI.

Notice that the DOI is presented as a hyperlink, and this is the correct way to present DOI’s when using APA 7th style.

Here is an example of a reference for an edited book.

Again, we can see same basic format as our previous examples, only in this case, the names and initials are those of the editors. After the names, we have the abbreviation for the word “editors”. Notice that the abbreviation for editors is denoted by a capital “E”, and is punctuated by a full stop, and contained within round brackets. This brackets are followed by a full stop before the year of publication. Then, we have the title of the book, which is in italics and sentence case.

Notice that this reference includes the publisher name, and includes a DOI, like our previous example.

A final point: remember that when constructing your reference list, the heading “references” should be in the centre and in bold. Your entries should be in alphabetical order based on the author surnames. Your entries should be doubled spaced, without extra spacing between, and should have a hanging indent. Lastly, make sure that all works cited in-text of your assignment also appear in your reference list.

So now you now how to reference books using APA 7th style. We hope this short video has been helpful. You can find more information about referencing on SCU’s referencing homepage, or you can contact your SCU librarian, or one of the Learning Experience Team who would be happy to help you.

Referencing a journal article in APA 7th style (3:21)

Hello and welcome to this short video on how to construct a reference for a journal article in APA 7th.

In order to do this we're going to need the following bits of information. We're going to need the author's name or names, the year of publications the title of both the article and the journal that it appears in, we're going to need the volume number the issue number, the page range and the doi otherwise known as the digital object identifier.

So this is the format that we use for a journal article.

This is found on the APA 7th lib guide so let's see how this would look with an example of a journal article. So here is the article we will be using.

So first we're going to need the names of the authors so here we have two authors we're going to need their surnames and their initials.

We're also going to need the year of publication the title of the article the journal title, the volume issue and page range.

Lastly we need the doi found here. So all of the information we need for our referencing is present on the first page of the journal.

Okay so let's see how this information can be used to format a reference for a journal article correctly in APA 7th.

So we've listed out all the information that we need here. Everything from the surname to the doi so now that we have all this information let's see how to format it correctly.

Here I've copied over the template from the APA 7th referencing guide for a journal article with two authors we're going to use. This as a point of reference because this is going to tell me how to lay out all of this information I found and in what order.

It's also going to give all of the required punctuation and spacing and other formatting that I need so every comma, full stop, capital, space, bracket and italic font [are] is all provided for me if I copy that template.

So let's see how this would look with the information we took off our journal. So here we are; notice the information appears in the exact same order and I've been careful to follow all the punctuation to match the libguide.

The next thing you want to do is create a list with your reference.

So first you want to format it so it's double spaced and then you want to create a hanging indent. A hanging indent refers to when the first line sits on the left margin but all subsequent lines are indented.

You can achieve this by the control or command T function in word. And a final reminder when conducting your reference list, the heading references should be in the center and in bold, your entries should be in alphabetical order based on the surnames, entries should be double spaced with no extra spacing between and should have a hanging indent and lastly, make sure all the works cited in text are in your list and all entries in your list are cited in text.

And that's it for this video. Thank you for watching and happy referencing.

Referencing articles, news agency websites APA 7th style (2:40)

Hello and welcome to this short video on how to reference online news articles in APA 7th.

To do this we'll need some specific pieces of information.

We'll need the author or author's name.

Next we'll need the date of publication or the latest update.

We'll need the title of the article, the title of the news agency and also the url.

So the format for the reference is found on the APA seventh libguide. Just note the url link should be live so the reader can access the article by clicking on it and going directly to the page and we want to use the most specific date possible for our entries.

So let's have a look at an example. Here we have a BBC News article, the individual who authored the article is here, the date of publication is below that, the title of the page is here and the title of the news agency is here. Lastly the url can be found right there so here I've compiled that information.

The next step is to use it to match the APA 7th formatting. So again here we have the format from that libguide and as you can see we've got an entry that matches that. We have the surname Murray a comma, followed by the first initial a and a full stop.

Next we have the year of publication in brackets and using this most specific date which is August 27 2020 followed by another full stop.

Next we have the title which is in italics in this case the title finishes with the question mark so that will take the place of the full stop. This is followed by the news agency title BBC News and another full stop before the url.

So this is what it would look like as a reference entry. Remember for APA 7th your references should be double spaced with a hanging indent where the first line aligns with the left margin and subsequent lines are indented. Note that you can use ctrl or command t to get that hanging indent quickly.

Lastly as a reminder make sure to use the heading references centred and in bold. Make sure your entries are in alphabetical order by the surname and that you're using double spacing without adding any extra spaces between entries and don't forget to make sure that you've concluded all the sources in text.

So we hope this video has been useful and happy referencing.


Harvard style referencing

How to reference a book using Harvard style (6:38)

Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video.

Today we are going to talk about how to write a reference for a book using Harvard referencing style.

Now, the majority of ebooks are available in print form, so in most cases, you’ll be referencing books and ebooks in the same way. But if an ebook is not available in print form, then we have a slightly different way of referencing it, and this will be covered later in the video.

So, here are the elements that you’ll need to reference a book correctly. You can usually find this information on the front or back cover, or somewhere on the first couple of pages of the book, or in the library catalogue.

So here’s an example of a library catalogue - let’s see where the referencing information is usually found.

Author name(s)
Year of publication
Title of the book
Any edition number
Publishing company
Place of publication.

The place of publication is the location of the publisher. If more than one place is listed, just use the first one, or the one that’s highlighted in bold type (if there is one).

So, here we have the basic format for referencing a book in Harvard style. This is how we’ll arrange the referencing information that we’ve just drawn from our catalogue.

First we have the authors, keeping the authors in the same order as they appear in the book. We start with the author’s last name and their initial.

Notice that there’s a comma between all the author’s names and their initials. There is also a comma to separate the first two authors, but we place an ampersand before the last author’s name, like this.

Notice that in Harvard style, we don’t use full stops to punctuate the authors’ initials.

Now, after the last author’s initial, we have a space before the year of publication, and this is followed by a comma. Then comes the title of the book which is in italics and sentence case. Sentence case just means we capitalise the first word of the title and any proper nouns.

Next, we have the publisher name, followed by a comma, and the place of publication, followed by a full stop.

So let’s have a look at how our book fits with this format.

First, we have the authors’ last names and their initials. Our book has only two authors, we simply use an ampersand before the last author’s name, not a comma.

See that after the last author’s initial, we have a space before the year of publication. Then after the year of publication, there is a comma before the title of the book which is in italics and sentence case. When a title has two parts, as this title does, we also capitalise the first word of the second part of the title. Then the publisher name, a comma, and the place of publication.

Now, what if our book was an edited book or a book in another edition?

Again, we can find all the information on the first few pages of the book itself, or in the library catalogue – so let’s look at this example for the information we need:

Editor name(s)
Year of publication
Title of the book
Edition number, and this book appears to be in its first edition.
Publishing company
Place of publication.

And here’s an example of the format we use for referencing an edited book.

Notice that the elements follow the same pattern as our previous example, but instead of the author names, we have the names of the editors. Again, we have a comma separating the first two editors, and an ampersand, not a comma, separating the last two editors. Then, after the last initial, we have the abbreviation for the word “editors” which you can see is ‘eds’ – all in lowercase and punctuated with a full stop – and this information is contained within round brackets.

Then we have the year of publication. Note that there’s no comma between the editor information and the year of publication, there is only a space, before the book title, publisher and place of publication.

So let’s have a look at how our book fits with this format.

First, we have the editor’s last names and their initials. As our book has three editors, we have used commas to separate the first 2 editors, and an ampersand before the last editor’s name.

See that after the last editor’s initial, we have the editor information contained in round brackets, then a space before the year of publication, and then a comma.

Next, we have the title of the book which is in italics and sentence case. Notice that in sentence case, we use capitals for the first word of the title, as well as for names or proper nouns, so we have capitalised the name Wiley Blackwell as well.

The title is followed by a comma, and then we have the publisher name, a comma, and the place of publication, which in this case is Chichester, in West Sussex in the UK.

Now, let’s take a look at how to reference a book in an edition other than the first edition:

Here is the basic format for referencing a book in another edition.

Note that all the elements follow the same pattern as our earlier examples, only in this example, you can see we have placed the edition information right after the title of the book. Notice that this information is in abbreviated form – the letters “edn” stand for the word “edition”.

The edition information is followed by a comma before the publisher of the book. So let’s look at an example.

So here is an example. Again, the reference starts with the authors’ names followed by a comma, and then their initials. The authors’ are separated by an ampersand. And after the last author’s initials, we have a space before the date, 2020.

Next we have the title in italics and sentence case. The title of this book is a two part title, so again, we would capitalise the first word of the second part of the title like we did previously.

Now, this book is in its 5th edition, and we have included this information after the title in abbreviated form. Then after the edition information, we have a comma, before the publication name and location - and finally, a full stop.

Now sometimes a book has been revised since its earlier published version, but its not a new edition. This can happen when the author has made minor updates to the content or has corrected it in some way, but these changes aren’t substantial enough to warrant it being an entirely new edition.

Now as we mentioned at the beginning of this video, if an ebook is available in print form, then you can reference the ebook as a print book. The publishing details will be on the usual pages inside the ebook.

But if we’re referencing an ebook that is not available in print form, or it’s been re-formatted in text or HTML format so that it loses the original page format view, then we include a viewing date and a URL. Let’s break it down:

You will see here that we have all the same elements arranged in the same order as our previous examples. The first notable difference is the Publisher element – you can see we have the option of naming either the publisher or the sponsor. This is because some ebooks have a sponsor rather than a publisher – if this is the case we would simply insert the sponsor name and location (if there is one) instead of the publisher details. Then, after a comma, we add the word “viewed” followed by the full date on which we viewed the book. This is followed by a comma, and the URL, which you can see is in pointed brackets.

So let’s take a look at an example.
If this is the case, we include the abbreviation for “revised edition”, denoted by the letters rev –space- edn, followed by a comma, as we have shown here.

So here is our example of an edited ebook. After the editors’ names, we have the abbreviation of the word “editors” contained in round brackets. This is then followed by a space and the date, and then a comma before the title. Next, we have the Publisher name and the location of the publisher, as usual.

Then we have the word “viewed” followed by the full date, 27 August 2020 on which we viewed the book, and this is followed by the URL which is in pointed brackets.

Now, you can see all the books we’ve talked about today have been included in this example reference list. The reference list should always begin on a new page at the end of your document - with the heading References in bold and centred at the top of the page.

You can see that the references have been arranged in alphabetical order, based on the first author’s surnames. Remember to include all the works you cited in your assignment, in your reference list at the end of your paper.

So now you know how to reference books and ebooks in Harvard style. We hope this has been helpful. There is more information too – so don’t forget you can access SCU’s online reference guides through a link on the library’s homepage to explore further, and happy referencing!

We’ll see you next time!

How to reference quotations in-text using Harvard style (6:35)

Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video.

Today we are going to talk about how to cite in-text when using quotations using Harvard referencing style.

Now when we talk about direct quotations, what this means is we’re using the exact words of the author. In academic writing, we can use either short quotations (i.e., quotations that are less than 30 words) or we can use long quotations (i.e., quotations that are more than 30 words) : but there are rules for using both.

So these are the rules for using short quotations: Short quotes should be incorporated into a sentence. And, because we’re copying the exact words of the author, we need to put single quotation marks around the quote.

Finally, we need to include the source of the quote (this is our citation). So let’s have a closer look at the citation in Harvard style. The citation should include three pieces of important information:

The author’s name, The year, The page number.

So let’s take a look at how a short quote might look if we use an author-focused format.

The author-focused citation places an emphasis on the author by integrating the author name into the sentence, which is followed immediately by the year and the page number in brackets.

This type of citation is also called a narrative citation and is usually placed at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence. Notice the text at the top of the page.

This is the quote that we’re going to use in our hypothetical assignment. Now, because we’re quoting, we’re going to use these exact words, i.e., Students often find higher learning to be an exciting challenge. And this was written by Jones in 2020.

So, in the first example, we can see the author name is at the beginning of the sentence, which is followed immediately by the year, a comma, and then the page number inside the brackets). Then we have the reporting verb, “suggested that” and then the full quote in single quotation marks.

The second example is similar, but in this case, we start the sentence with our reporting verb, ‘According to’, and then the author name, Jones, and then in brackets immediately after the author’s name we have the year, comma, and the page number. A comma is placed immediately after the citation, and we have the full quote inside single quotation marks.

The third example uses a fragment or portion of the original quote. It has the author further back in the sentence. So, “Many students find academic study ‘an exciting challenge’ as Jones (2020, p. 7) suggested in a recent study.” Notice that in this example, the author name, followed by the date and page number in brackets, comes after the quote in the final part of the sentence.  

The last example demonstrates that we don’t need to use every word of a quote, we can simply use a fragment to highlight the part that we want to use. But we must always include the page number when using a direct quote.

Now let’s take a look at how a short quote might look in our assignment if we use an information-focused format. This kind of citation is usually placed at the end of a sentence. If we break this sentence down, we can see that the citation comes after the quotation: it begins with the author’s name followed by the date, then a comma before the page number.

Notice that there is no comma between the author name and the date, there is only a space. And note also, that the “p” denoting the page number is punctuated with a full stop.

This information is contained within round brackets, and a full stop is placed after the citation.

So now we know how to reference a short quotation using both author-focused and information-focused formats. But if we want to use a long quotation, a different format is used. By ‘long quotation’, we mean quotes with more than 30 words. 

Long quotes are far too long to include within the body of a text, and so they’re usually indented in a block format. Long quotations should be: Indented from the text margin in a block format. The font should be one size smaller, so if, for example you are using Times New Roman 12 pt in the body of your essay, you should use 11 pt for your long quotation. The line spacing is single-spaced and quotation marks are not needed.

Too many direct quotes is not good, so use direct quotations sparingly!

The majority of your assignment should be in your own “voice”. Try not to rely too heavily on the words of others because it can mean that you’re not demonstrating your own understanding of those ideas.

So we hope this has been helpful.

Good luck with all of your referencing and we’ll see you next time!

How to reference a chapter in a book using Harvard style (4:25)

Hi everyone, and welcome to this short video.

Today we’ll look at how to write a reference for a chapter in an edited book using Harvard referencing style. An edited book usually comprises a number of chapters that are each written by a different author.

When you use information from a chapter in a collected work, the author or authors of the chapter must be credited.

So let’s take a look at how to do this. We can find all the information we need on the first few pages of the book itself, or in the library catalogue. So, here’s an example of an online library catalogue.

Let’s look at where the referencing information might be found: Now, it’s difficult to fit the whole catalogue entry on this screen, so we will need to scroll down to find some of the necessary elements.

For example, the first thing we need is the Chapter Author names, so we would scroll down to the Chapter information to find this:

Chapter author name(s)
Year of publication
Title of the chapter
Name(s) of editor(s)
Title of the whole book
Publisher name
Publisher location
Page range

So here is our Chapter information, and we’re interested in Chapter 3 in particular. So the first thing we need is the Chapter author names, which as you can see are:

Chapter author name(s) – Wendy D. Manning and Susan L. Brown
Year of publication
Title of the chapter - American Families: Demographic Trends and Social Class
Name(s) of editor(s)
Title of the whole book
Publisher name
Publisher location
Page range

Here is an example of the basic format for referencing an edited book [see video].

First we have the chapter author names. Notice that all the names are inverted, so that the last name comes first, followed by a comma and then the initial or initials for each chapter author. Note that there is an ampersand separating the second-last chapter author and the last author – there is no comma.

Then we have a space after the last author’s initial before the year of publication, which is followed by a comma. The title of the chapter comes next, which is in single quotation marks and in sentence case. This is also followed by a comma.

Then, we have the word “in” in lower case, followed by the editors’ names. Notice that these names are not inverted, so that their initials come first, before their last name – and there is no punctuation between the initials and the last name.

Then we have an abbreviated form of the word “editors” which is denoted by eds – and punctuated with a full stop and placed within round brackets. Then we have the title of the whole book, which is in italics and sentence case. This is followed by a comma before we have the Publisher name, a comma, and the publisher location, and another comma, before the page range of the chapter. Note that the page range is denoted by a pp – no punctuation – and then the page range, which ends with a full stop. And here it is. Again, we can see same general pattern as our previous example:

First we have the chapter author names, which are arranged with the last name first, followed by a comma, and then the initials, and in this case we have only two authors, which are separated by an ampersand. Then, after a space, we have the year of publication, followed by a comma.

Then the title of the chapter in single quotes, followed by a comma, then the word “in” and the editor names, in the normal order so that their initial or initials precede their last name. The editors’ names are followed by the abbreviated word for editors, which is punctuated and contained in round brackets, then a comma before the title of the whole book. Notice that in this title, we have capitalised the name Wiley Blackwell.

Next, we have the name of the publisher, the location of the publisher, and the page range of the chapter. So this brings us to the end of the video. Remember to include all the citations you’ve used in the text of your assignment in your reference list at the end of your document. This should also be on a new page, with the heading “References” in bold and centred.

The reference entries should be ordered alphabetically based on the first author’s name. So we hope this short video has been helpful. You can find more information about referencing through a link on the library’s homepage, or you can contact your SCU librarian, or one of the Learning Experience Team who would be happy to help you.

So…good luck with your referencing and we’ll see you next time!

How to reference a paraphrase using Harvard style (6:44)

Hello and welcome to this short video prepared by the Learning Experience Team.

In this video we’ll show you how to write an in-text citation for a paraphrase using Harvard referencing style.

So paraphrasing means expressing someone else’s ideas in your own words. When we paraphrase something, we express the original meaning of the idea that we’re using, but we use different words.

Now, when we paraphrase, it’s very important to acknowledge where we got the idea from by including a citation. This is why in-text citations are important: they allow your readers to link your main points to where the information was sourced.

So, let’s have a look at how this is done using Harvard referencing style.

There are basically two ways to reference a paraphrase in the body of your assignment:

an author-focused format or
an information-focused format.

Author-focused citations have the author’s name outside the brackets. These citations are integrated into the sentence, and are either at the beginning or in the middle of sentences. We use this format when we want to draw attention to the author.

So, here we have an example of some original text written by Smith, who is our author. And Smith states that “students often find referencing in the body of their work difficult to understand and do correctly.” So those are the author’s words. We will use that idea by paraphrasing it into our own words and then referencing the author.

Here are some examples of how this might look using an author focused style:

The sentence in the first example is “Smith argued that in-text citations can be confusing.”

So here we have the author first, then the year in brackets, then the reporting clause “argued that”, and then the paraphrase of the original idea.

In the next example, we can see that the author has been integrated further into the middle of the sentence: “According to Smith, in text citations can be confusing.”

In this sentence, we have the reporting verb (“According to”) first, then the author, “Smith”, then the year in brackets, followed by a comma, and then the paraphrased idea.

And finally in this last example, we can see that the author has moved toward the end of sentence: “In-text citations can be confusing, as Smith (2020) pointed out in a recent study.”

Here we have the paraphrase first, followed by a comma, and then the author, and the year, followed by the reporting clause.

Now, let’s take a look at information focused citations. In this format, the authors name is contained inside the brackets. This type of citation most frequently appears in the middle or at the end of the sentence.  And unlike author focused referencing, we use this kind of referencing to draw attention to the actual information.

So, let’s look at some examples.

So, here again is the original text by our author Smith. You can see that In the first example, the citation appears right at the end of the sentence:

So we have our paraphrase first, “It has been argued that in-text citations can be confusing” and then at the end, we have the author and year contained in round brackets followed by a full stop.

It’s important to note that there is no comma between the author and the year, just a space.

This is an important feature of Harvard style referencing.

In the second example, the citation is in embedded in the middle of the sentence. So, the paraphrase comes first, “In-text citations can be a little confusing”, followed by

the citation (Smith 2020). Notice again that there is only a space between the author name and the date, there’s no comma.

This is then followed by an additional idea, “which poses a challenge for many students”.

So when thinking about which way to reference in your paper, author focused or information focused are both suitable styles to use, one is not better than the other. In fact, it’s a good idea to mix it up a little and use both styles in your paper.

Now let’s have a look at how to cite multiple authors in-text.

When a work has 2 or 3 authors, we cite all the names in the order in which they appear in the reference.

So, the first example shows how to reference a paraphrase with two authors using an author-focused style.

Remember, an author focused style integrates the authors into the sentence.

So this sentence starts with the author names, ‘Smith and Jones’, and the year in round brackets. Notice that the word ‘and’ is used between the author names instead of the symbol. Then the reporting verb, and then the paraphrase.

The second example shows how to cite in-text using an author-focused style when the work has 3 authors. Here we can see the first author’s name, followed by a comma, the second author’s name, then the word “and” and the last author’s name, and then the year in round brackets.

The third example shows how to cite in-text using an information-focused style, where you place the citation in brackets after the paraphrase.

So notice that we have the paraphrase first and then, at the end of the sentence, we have the first author’s name, followed by a comma, the second author’s last name

followed by an ampersand, then the last author’s name, and the year. Note that the full stop comes after the citation.

Notice again that there is no comma between the last author’s name and the year. If a work has 4 or more authors, we cite only the last name of the first author followed by ‘et al.’ ('et al.' is the Latin term for 'and others’).

So, our first example shows how more than three authors are cited when using an author-focused style (integrated into the text). You can see that the abbreviated word “al” is punctuated with a full stop, and there is only a space between the full stop and the date, there is no comma.

Now, the second example shows how more than 3 authors are cited using an information-focused style. Again, the word “al” is punctuated with a full stop, and then there is a space before the date.

So in a nutshell, when we paraphrase, we use our own words to explain someone else’s idea, and then we reference the idea to avoid plagiarism.

Remember, you can use information-focused or author-focused formats in your writing. Using both styles is a good idea because it will add variety to your referencing.

We hope this video has been helpful, and best of luck with all of your referencing!

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